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Obesity, Body Composition and Insulin Resistance in Women with and without Bipolar Disorder

Fleet, Sara Beth (2007) Obesity, Body Composition and Insulin Resistance in Women with and without Bipolar Disorder. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

Obesity and cardiovascular disease is common in bipolar disorder, both of which are associated with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is also associated with distribution of body fat, specifically abdominal visceral fat and fat accumulation in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, reduced capacity to utilize fat has been linked with obesity, type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. PURPOSE: To compare insulin sensitivity, body composition and resting substrate utilization between obese and normal weight patients with bipolar 1 disorder and race, age and BMI matched controls. METHODS: Participants underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to measure fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM), computed tomography (CT) to measure cross-sectional abdominal adipose tissue and indirect calorimetry to measure resting substrate oxidation. Free- living energy expenditure was measured for 5 days using BodyMedia SenseWear Pro Armband and the food frequency questionnaire estimated the usual consumption of 79 main food items over the preceding 12 months. Insulin sensitivity was measured from fasting insulin and glucose measurements and defined by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR). RESULTS: Eighteen patients with bipolar 1 disorder and 17 controls participated in this study. There were no differences observed in insulin resistance between obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) patients and controls (56.8 ± 17.2 vs. 51.8 ± 11.1; P = 0.842) or normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2) patients and controls (30.5 &plusmn 6.3 vs. 27.0 ± 5.7 P = 0.691). CT revealed a difference in total abdominal fat (718.1 &plusmn 33.6 vs. 607.4 ± 38.6cm2; P = 0.04), a trend in visceral abdominal fat (P = 0.06) though no difference in subcutaneous abdominal fat between obese patients and controls. Indirect calorimetry revealed a trend (P=0.06) in reduced fat oxidation in normal weight patients compared to controls and when combining obese and normal weight patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with bipolar 1 disorder do not appear to be more insulin resistant than controls after accounting for their obesity. However, a reduced fat oxidation in normal weight patients may be an underlying factor predisposing them for future weight gain and concomitant increased risk for type 2 diabetes.


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Details

Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Fleet, Sara BethExphys4life@gmail.com
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairGoodpaster, Bret HBgood@pitt.eduBGOOD
Committee MemberOtto, AmyAyotto@pitt.eduAYOTTO
Committee MemberFagiolini, AndreasFagiolinia@upmc.edu
Committee MemberKupfer, DavidKupferdj@upmc.edu
Committee MemberJakicic, John JJjakicic@pitt.eduJJAKICIC
Date: 30 January 2007
Date Type: Completion
Defense Date: 20 November 2006
Approval Date: 30 January 2007
Submission Date: 8 December 2006
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: School of Education > Health, Physical, Recreational Education
Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: ; abdominal obesity; bipolar disorder; body composition; depression; obesity; substrate metabolism
Other ID: http://etd.library.pitt.edu/ETD/available/etd-12082006-105612/, etd-12082006-105612
Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2011 20:09
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2016 13:53
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/10198

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