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EXPOSURE CONCENTRATIONS OF PHARMACEUTICAL ESTROGENS AND XENOESTROGENS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT SOURCES, THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT AND AN AQUATIC HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF BISPHENOL-A: IMPLICATIONS FOR WILDLIFE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

Wright-Walters, Maxine (2009) EXPOSURE CONCENTRATIONS OF PHARMACEUTICAL ESTROGENS AND XENOESTROGENS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT SOURCES, THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT AND AN AQUATIC HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF BISPHENOL-A: IMPLICATIONS FOR WILDLIFE AND PUBLIC HEALTH. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

Humans are exposed daily to both pharmaceutical estrogens and xenoestrogens (PEXE) due to their presence in many household products, food products, soil, air, water and estrogen based medications. These PEXEs have been implicated in various human health outcomes, such as breast cancer in women and testicular dysgenesis syndrome including testicular cancer. They also can have adverse reproductive effects on aquatic wildlife through sex reversals, production of intersex individuals, alterations in mating, and prevention of gonadal maturation. There are many sources and types of PEXEs in air, water, soil, household products and food products, but the focus for this research is on the transport and fate of PEXEs from all media into surface water, especially through municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP) sources. This dissertation consists of three related research papers. The first examines the sources and types of PEXEs in municipal WWTPs. The second documents and compares aquatic exposure concentrations of PEXEs to their Predicted No effect concentration (PNECs) to determine aquatic species protectiveness or risk. The third paper conducts an aquatic hazard assessment of the xenoestrogen, Bisphenol A (BPA). The findings of the research suggest that PEXEs; contain compounds that can mimic estrogens, are mostly introduced into the environment through municipal WWTP effluent sources, and are discharged directly into rivers and lakes at environmentally relevant concentrations. Specifically, BPA, a compound widely used in plastics may be present in surface waters at hazardous concentrations that may present a risk for aquatic receptors. The public health significance of this research is that approximately sixty percent of Americans obtain their drinking water from surface water sources. Thus, understanding PEXEs and their concentrations present of WWTP effluents is imperative for environmental public health tracking of associated disease states, and in the regulation of fish or wildlife consumption from rivers and lakes. Further, to examine adverse health effects in the biotic aquatic system is to indirectly explore possible exposure and health effects on humans since species in the wild are sentinels for human exposure ("the canary in the mine"). Sentinel animals may provide early warning of potential risks before disease develops in human populations.


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Details

Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Wright-Walters, Maxinemwalters@edv-inc.com;maw46@pitt.eduMAW46
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairPitt, Bruce Rbrucep@pitt.eduBRUCEP
Committee CoChairVolz, Conrad Dcdv5@pitt.eduCDV5
Committee MemberBarchowski, Aaronaab20@pitt.eduAAB20
Committee MemberDavis, Devra Leedld20@pitt.eduDLD20
Committee MemberTalbott, Evelyn Oeot1@pitt.eduEOT1
Date: 29 June 2009
Date Type: Completion
Defense Date: 2 December 2008
Approval Date: 29 June 2009
Submission Date: 8 December 2008
Access Restriction: 5 year -- Restrict access to University of Pittsburgh for a period of 5 years.
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Environmental and Occupational Health
Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: risk assessment; ecological; hazard assessment
Other ID: http://etd.library.pitt.edu/ETD/available/etd-12082008-171350/, etd-12082008-171350
Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2011 20:09
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2016 13:53
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/10208

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