Pitt Logo LinkContact Us

Phonological processing abilities of adults who stutter

Pelczarski, Kristin (2011) Phonological processing abilities of adults who stutter. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.

[img]
Preview
PDF - Primary Text
Download (1364Kb) | Preview

    Abstract

    This study investigated phonological awareness, phonological memory and rapid automatic naming abilities of adults who stutter and typically fluent peers. Many theorists posit that a delay or breakdown occurs during “phonological encoding,” or the retrieval or construction of phonological segments (Howell & Au-Yeung, 2002; Perkins, Kent & Curlee, 1991; Postma & Kolk, 1993; Wingate 1988). Efficient phonological encoding is predicated upon the ability to segment phonological representations in a rapid, precise manner. According to current theories, a delay or incomplete retrieval of lexical segments could impede the execution of the articulatory plan, thereby resulting in disfluent speech. Unfortunately, the process of phonological encoding is not directly observable and must therefore be explored though alternate processes that reflects its incremental nature. Phonological awareness, phonological memory and rapid automatic naming can be examined to accomplish this task. Several core mechanisms are utilized during phonological processing, and a deficit in any of these mechanisms could account for performance differences in phonological processing tasks. Completion of these tasks is dependent upon the quality of phonological representations in the lexicon, the ability to construct novel phonological codes online, and the ability to maintain phonological representations in memory. The process of redintegration, whereby pre-existing lexical-semantic knowledge is used to supplement decaying or delayed phonological code (Hulme et al., 1997), can also play an important role in the completion of phonological processing tasks. Participants completed several tasks examining different aspects of their phonological processing abilities. Significant between-group differences were revealed on nonlexical phonological awareness tasks, nonword repetition tasks, and rapid automatic naming tasks that used lexical stimuli. Adults who stutter performed significantly less well than typically fluent adults on tasks that used nonlexical stimuli. Adults who stutter appear to rely heavily on lexical-semantic information (redintegration) to bolster lower performance in other aspects of phonological encoding. Participants in both groups performed equally well on tasks that used lexical stimuli but not on tasks with nonlexical stimuli, indicating that between-group differences in phonological encoding exist. Differences in core mechanisms of phonological processing may reveal subtle linguistic differences that may contribute to an unstable speech system in people who stutter.


    Share

    Citation/Export:
    Social Networking:

    Details

    Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
    Creators/Authors:
    CreatorsEmailORCID
    Pelczarski, Kristinkpelczarski@gmail.com
    ETD Committee:
    ETD Committee TypeCommittee MemberEmailORCID
    Committee ChairYaruss, J. Scottjsyaruss@pitt.edu
    UNSPECIFIEDDickey, Michealmdickey@pitt.edu
    UNSPECIFIEDLeslie, Paulapleslie@pitt.edu
    UNSPECIFIEDFiez, Juliesfiez@pitt.edu
    Title: Phonological processing abilities of adults who stutter
    Status: Published
    Abstract: This study investigated phonological awareness, phonological memory and rapid automatic naming abilities of adults who stutter and typically fluent peers. Many theorists posit that a delay or breakdown occurs during “phonological encoding,” or the retrieval or construction of phonological segments (Howell & Au-Yeung, 2002; Perkins, Kent & Curlee, 1991; Postma & Kolk, 1993; Wingate 1988). Efficient phonological encoding is predicated upon the ability to segment phonological representations in a rapid, precise manner. According to current theories, a delay or incomplete retrieval of lexical segments could impede the execution of the articulatory plan, thereby resulting in disfluent speech. Unfortunately, the process of phonological encoding is not directly observable and must therefore be explored though alternate processes that reflects its incremental nature. Phonological awareness, phonological memory and rapid automatic naming can be examined to accomplish this task. Several core mechanisms are utilized during phonological processing, and a deficit in any of these mechanisms could account for performance differences in phonological processing tasks. Completion of these tasks is dependent upon the quality of phonological representations in the lexicon, the ability to construct novel phonological codes online, and the ability to maintain phonological representations in memory. The process of redintegration, whereby pre-existing lexical-semantic knowledge is used to supplement decaying or delayed phonological code (Hulme et al., 1997), can also play an important role in the completion of phonological processing tasks. Participants completed several tasks examining different aspects of their phonological processing abilities. Significant between-group differences were revealed on nonlexical phonological awareness tasks, nonword repetition tasks, and rapid automatic naming tasks that used lexical stimuli. Adults who stutter performed significantly less well than typically fluent adults on tasks that used nonlexical stimuli. Adults who stutter appear to rely heavily on lexical-semantic information (redintegration) to bolster lower performance in other aspects of phonological encoding. Participants in both groups performed equally well on tasks that used lexical stimuli but not on tasks with nonlexical stimuli, indicating that between-group differences in phonological encoding exist. Differences in core mechanisms of phonological processing may reveal subtle linguistic differences that may contribute to an unstable speech system in people who stutter.
    Date: 19 December 2011
    Date Type: Publication
    Defense Date: 04 November 2011
    Approval Date: 19 December 2011
    Submission Date: 08 December 2011
    Release Date: 19 December 2011
    Access Restriction: No restriction; The work is available for access worldwide immediately.
    Patent pending: No
    Number of Pages: 231
    Institution: University of Pittsburgh
    Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
    Refereed: Yes
    Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
    Uncontrolled Keywords: stuttering; phonological processing; linguistic processing; phonological awareness; phonological memory; phonological encoding
    Schools and Programs: School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences > Communication Science and Disorders
    Date Deposited: 19 Dec 2011 15:39
    Last Modified: 16 Jul 2014 17:04

    Actions (login required)

    View Item

    Document Downloads