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Fluid and volume monitoring

Pinsky, MR and Brophy, P and Padilla, J and Paganini, E and Pannu, N (2008) Fluid and volume monitoring. International Journal of Artificial Organs, 31 (2). 111 - 126. ISSN 0391-3988

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Abstract

Background: Fluid resuscitation is not only used to prevent acute kidney injury (AKI) but fluid management is also a cornerstone of treatment forpatients with established AKI and renal failure. Ultraffitration removes volume initially from the intravascular compartment inducing a relative degree of hypovolemia. Normal reflex mechanisms attempt to sustain blood pressure constant despite marked changes in blood volume and cardiac output. Thus, compensated shock with a normal blood pressure is a major cause of AKI or exacerbations of AKI during ultrafiltration. Methods: We undertook a systematic review of the literature using MEDLINE, Google Scholar and PubMed searches. We determined a list of key questions and convened a 2-day consensus conference to develop summary statements via a series of alternating breakout and plenary sessions. In these sessions, we identified supporting evidence and generated clinical practice recommendations and/or directions for future research. Results: We defined three aspects of fluid monitoring: i) normal and pathophysiological cardiovascular mechanisms, ii) measures of volume responsiveness and impending cardiovascular collapse during volume removal, and, iii) measured indices of each using non-invasive and minimally invasive continuous and intermittent monitoring techniques. The evidence documents that AKI can occur in the setting of normotensive hypovolemia and that under-resuscitation represents a major cause of both AKI and mortality ion critically ill patients. Traditional measures of intravascular volume and ventricular filling do not predict volume responsiveness whereas dynamic functional hemodynamic markers, such as pulse pressure or stroke volume variation during positive pressure breathing or mean flow changes with passive leg raising are highly predictive of volume responsiveness. Numerous commercially-available devices exist that can acquire these signals. Conclusions: Prospective clinical trials using functional hemodynamic markers in the diagnosis and management of AKI and volume status during ultrafiltration need to be performed. More traditional measure of preload be abandoned as marked of volume responsiveness though still useful to assess overall volume status. © Wichtig Editore, 2008.


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Details

Item Type: Article
Status: Published
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Pinsky, MRpinsky@pitt.eduPINSKY
Brophy, P
Padilla, J
Paganini, E
Pannu, N
Date: 1 January 2008
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Volume: 31
Number: 2
Page Range: 111 - 126
DOI or Unique Handle: 10.1177/039139880803100205
Schools and Programs: School of Medicine > Critical Care Medicine
Refereed: Yes
ISSN: 0391-3988
Article Type: Review
PubMed ID: 18311728
Date Deposited: 05 Mar 2012 17:25
Last Modified: 04 Feb 2019 15:56
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/11198

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