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Ultrafast Laser Fabrication of Waveguides in Glasses and Crystalline Materials

McMillen, Benjamin W. (2012) Ultrafast Laser Fabrication of Waveguides in Glasses and Crystalline Materials. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Over the last decade, the ultrafast laser has emerged as a powerful tool to shape three-dimensional photonic circuits in transparent dielectric materials. One of the unique traits of this fabrication approach is its ability to produce photonic circuits in bulk optical substrates with proven optical quality. It therefore bypasses all challenges associated with multi-step thin-film based material synthesis and fabrication techniques.
In this thesis, the ultrafast direct laser writing (DLW) technique is applied to several materials, including fused silica, lithium tantalate ( ), sapphire ( ), and gallium lanthanum sulfide (GLS) chalcogenide glass to produce 3D photonic circuits. Optimal processing conditions are determined through the analysis of the guided-mode characteristics of these structures, while the mechanisms behind the laser-induced refractive index change are investigated with such techniques as micro-structural Raman imaging, and second-harmonic microscopy.
This research identifies optimized processing conditions by considering laser-induced multi-photon ionization, pulse distortion due to nonlinear Kerr interactions, and laser-induced thermal effects, all in connection with the intrinsic material properties. Based on this fundamental understanding of ultrafast laser material interactions, spatial and temporal pulse shaping is implemented to precisely engineer laser-induced refractive index change at femtosecond time scales with micrometer spatial resolution. This work has yielded high quality low-loss photonic circuits in chalcogenide glasses for nonlinear and mid-IR applications.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
McMillen, Benjamin W.ben@mcmillen.eu0000-0001-6575-336X
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairChen, Kevin P. pec9@pitt.eduPEC9
Committee CoChairStanchina, Williamwes25@pitt.eduWES25
Committee MemberLi, Guangyonggul6@pitt.eduGUL6
Committee MemberChen, Yiranyic52@pitt.eduYIC52
Committee MemberCho, Sung Kwonskcho@pitt.eduSKCHO
Date: 26 September 2012
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 17 July 2012
Approval Date: 26 September 2012
Submission Date: 26 July 2012
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Number of Pages: 127
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Swanson School of Engineering > Electrical Engineering
Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Waveguide, Laser, Ultrafast, Glasses, Crystals, Chalcogenide, Sapphire, Lithium, Tantalate, Bragg, Poling, Silica
Date Deposited: 26 Sep 2012 15:32
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2016 14:00

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