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Mislocalization of XPF-ERCC1 nuclease contributes to reduced DNA repair in XP-F patients

Ahmad, A and Enzlin, JH and Bhagwat, NR and Wijgers, N and Raams, A and Appledoorn, E and Theil, AF and Hoeijmakers, JHJ and Vermeulen, W and Jaspers, NGJ and Schärer, OD and Niedernhofer, LJ (2010) Mislocalization of XPF-ERCC1 nuclease contributes to reduced DNA repair in XP-F patients. PLoS Genetics, 6 (3). ISSN 1553-7390

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Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is caused by defects in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. NER removes helixdistorting DNA lesions, such as UV-induced photodimers, from the genome. Patients suffering from XP exhibit exquisite sun sensitivity, high incidence of skin cancer, and in some cases neurodegeneration. The severity of XP varies tremendously depending upon which NER gene is mutated and how severely the mutation affects DNA repair capacity. XPF-ERCC1 is a structure-specific endonuclease essential for incising the damaged strand of DNA in NER. Missense mutations in XPF can result not only in XP, but also XPF-ERCC1 (XFE) progeroid syndrome, a disease of accelerated aging. In an attempt to determine how mutations in XPF can lead to such diverse symptoms, the effects of a progeria-causing mutation (XPFR153P) were compared to an XP-causing mutation (XPFR799W) in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant XPF harboring either mutation was purified in a complex with ERCC1 and tested for its ability to incise a stem-loop structure in vitro. Both mutant complexes nicked the substrate indicating that neither mutation obviates catalytic activity of the nuclease. Surprisingly, differential immunostaining and fractionation of cells from an XFE progeroid patient revealed that XPF-ERCC1 is abundant in the cytoplasm. This was confirmed by fluorescent detection of XPFR153P-YFP expressed in Xpf mutant cells. In addition, microinjection of XPFR153P-ERCC1 into the nucleus of XPF-deficient human cells restored nucleotide excision repair of UV-induced DNA damage. Intriguingly, in all XPF mutant cell lines examined, XPF-ERCC1 was detected in the cytoplasm of a fraction of cells. This demonstrates that at least part of the DNA repair defect and symptoms associated with mutations in XPF are due to mislocalization of XPF-ERCC1 into the cytoplasm of cells, likely due to protein misfolding. Analysis of these patient cells therefore reveals a novel mechanism to potentially regulate a cell's capacity for DNA repair: by manipulating nuclear localization of XPF-ERCC1. © 2010 Ahmad et al.


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Item Type: Article
Status: Published
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Ahmad, A
Enzlin, JH
Bhagwat, NR
Wijgers, N
Raams, A
Appledoorn, E
Theil, AF
Hoeijmakers, JHJ
Vermeulen, W
Jaspers, NGJ
Schärer, OD
Niedernhofer, LJ
ContributionContributors NameEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Date: 1 March 2010
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: PLoS Genetics
Volume: 6
Number: 3
DOI or Unique Handle: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000871
Refereed: Yes
ISSN: 1553-7390
MeSH Headings: Amino Acid Substitution--genetics; Animals; CHO Cells; Cell Survival; Cricetinae; Cricetulus; DNA Repair; DNA-Binding Proteins--genetics; DNA-Binding Proteins--metabolism; Endonucleases--genetics; Endonucleases--metabolism; Fluorescent Antibody Technique; Humans; Mutation--genetics; Protein Transport; Recombinant Fusion Proteins--metabolism; Xeroderma Pigmentosum--enzymology; Xeroderma Pigmentosum--genetics; Xeroderma Pigmentosum--pathology
Other ID: NLM PMC2832669
PubMed Central ID: PMC2832669
PubMed ID: 20221251
Date Deposited: 03 Aug 2012 18:46
Last Modified: 22 Jun 2021 14:55


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