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Evaluation of selected sidewalk pavement surfaces for vibration experienced by users of manual and powered wheelchairs.

Cooper, RA and Wolf, E and Fitzgerald, SG and Kellerher, A and Ammer, W and Boninger, ML and Cooper, R (2004) Evaluation of selected sidewalk pavement surfaces for vibration experienced by users of manual and powered wheelchairs. The journal of spinal cord medicine, 27 (5). 468 - 475. ISSN 1079-0268

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Obstacles such as bumps, curb descents, and uneven driving surfaces cause vibrations that affect the wheelchair, and in turn, the wheelchair user. Chronic exposure can cause low-back pain, disk degeneration, and other harmful effects. Little research has been conducted to assess the vibrations experienced by wheelchair users. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to conduct an evaluation of the vibration exposure during electric-powered wheelchair driving and mechanical energy requirements for manual wheelchair propulsion over selected sidewalk surfaces. The goal was to determine the criteria for a wheelchair-pedestrian access route that does not require excessive propulsive work or expose wheelchair users to potentially harmful vibrations. METHODS: Ten unimpaired individuals participated in this study. Six sidewalk surfaces were tested. Measured variables included power of the acceleration per octave, mechanical work to propel over surfaces, peak acceleration, and frequency at which peak acceleration occurs. RESULTS: For both the manual and electric-powered wheelchair, at 1 m/s, significant differences were found in peak accelerations between the seat and footrest (P < 0.0001) and between the sidewalk surfaces (P = 0.004). The greatest risk for injury caused by shock and vibration exposure occurs at frequencies near the natural frequency of seated humans (4-15 Hz). The values for work required to propel over the surfaces tested were not statistically significantly different. Besides appearance and construction, the only distinguishing characteristic was surface roughness caused by the joints. CONCLUSION: When treating the poured concrete sidewalk as the standard, surfaces 2, 3, 5, and 6 compared most favorably in terms of vibration exposure, whereas surface 4 produced mixed results. Surfaces 2, 3, 5, and 6 yielded results that were similar to the poured concrete sidewalk and could be considered acceptable for wheelchair users. In conclusion, surfaces other than the traditional poured concrete can be used for pedestrian access routes without adding vibration exposure or reducing propulsion efficiency.


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Details

Item Type: Article
Status: Published
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Cooper, RARCOOPER@pitt.eduRCOOPER
Wolf, E
Fitzgerald, SG
Kellerher, A
Ammer, W
Boninger, MLboninger@pitt.eduBONINGER
Cooper, Rcooperrm@pitt.eduCOOPERRM
Centers: Other Centers, Institutes, or Units > Human Engineering Research Laboratories
Date: 1 January 2004
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: The journal of spinal cord medicine
Volume: 27
Number: 5
Page Range: 468 - 475
DOI or Unique Handle: 10.1080/10790268.2004.11752239
Schools and Programs: School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences > Rehabilitation Science and Technology
Refereed: Yes
ISSN: 1079-0268
MeSH Headings: Adult; Architectural Accessibility; Back Injuries--etiology; Back Pain--etiology; Construction Materials; Equipment Design; Ergometry; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Physical Exertion; Risk Factors; Transportation; Vibration--adverse effects; Wheelchairs
PubMed ID: 15648802
Date Deposited: 05 Oct 2012 18:25
Last Modified: 05 Feb 2019 03:55
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/15670

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