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Direct and indirect effects of rotavirus vaccination: Comparing predictions from transmission dynamic models

Pitzer, VE and Atkins, KE and de Blasio, BF and van Effelterre, T and Atchison, CJ and Harris, JP and Shim, E and Galvani, AP and Edmunds, WJ and Viboud, C and Patel, MM and Grenfell, BT and Parashar, UD and Lopman, BA (2012) Direct and indirect effects of rotavirus vaccination: Comparing predictions from transmission dynamic models. PLoS ONE, 7 (8).

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Early observations from countries that have introduced rotavirus vaccination suggest that there may be indirect protection for unvaccinated individuals, but it is unclear whether these benefits will extend to the long term. Transmission dynamic models have attempted to quantify the indirect protection that might be expected from rotavirus vaccination in developed countries, but results have varied. To better understand the magnitude and sources of variability in model projections, we undertook a comparative analysis of transmission dynamic models for rotavirus. We fit five models to reported rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) data from England and Wales, and evaluated outcomes for short- and long-term vaccination effects. All of our models reproduced the important features of rotavirus epidemics in England and Wales. Models predicted that during the initial year after vaccine introduction, incidence of severe RVGE would be reduced 1.8-2.9 times more than expected from the direct effects of the vaccine alone (28-50% at 90% coverage), but over a 5-year period following vaccine introduction severe RVGE would be reduced only by 1.1-1.7 times more than expected from the direct effects (54-90% at 90% coverage). Projections for the long-term reduction of severe RVGE ranged from a 55% reduction at full coverage to elimination with at least 80% coverage. Our models predicted short-term reductions in the incidence of RVGE that exceeded estimates of the direct effects, consistent with observations from the United States and other countries. Some of the models predicted that the short-term indirect benefits may be offset by a partial shifting of the burden of RVGE to older unvaccinated individuals. Nonetheless, even when such a shift occurs, the overall reduction in severe RVGE is considerable. Discrepancies among model predictions reflect uncertainties about age variation in the risk and reporting of RVGE, and the duration of natural and vaccine-induced immunity, highlighting important questions for future research.


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Item Type: Article
Status: Published
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Pitzer, VE
Atkins, KE
de Blasio, BF
van Effelterre, T
Atchison, CJ
Harris, JP
Shim, E
Galvani, AP
Edmunds, WJ
Viboud, C
Patel, MM
Grenfell, BT
Parashar, UD
Lopman, BA
ContributionContributors NameEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Date: 13 August 2012
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: PLoS ONE
Volume: 7
Number: 8
DOI or Unique Handle: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042320
Schools and Programs: School of Public Health > Epidemiology
Refereed: Yes
Other ID: NLM PMC3418263
PubMed Central ID: PMC3418263
PubMed ID: 22912699
Date Deposited: 18 Oct 2012 20:53
Last Modified: 13 Oct 2017 23:55


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