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Birth order and oral clefts: A meta analysis

Vieira, AR and Orioli, IM (2002) Birth order and oral clefts: A meta analysis. Teratology, 66 (5). 209 - 216. ISSN 0040-3709

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Background: There is evidence that late birth order is associated with some complex disorders. For orofacial clefts there is no consensus as to whether increased birth order is associated or not. A meta-analysis of published data on cleft lip or cleft palate (CL/P and CP) was carried out to ascertain whether there is an increased risk for children of high birth order to have an oral cleft. Methods: All data available with information regarding the frequency of live births and CL/P and CP cases by birth order (1, 2, 3, and 4 or more) were included in the analysis, and the birth order category "1" was considered to be with no risk (OR = 1.0). Results: Children with higher birth order are more likely to have CL/P and CP with odds ratios increasing with birth order to a peak of 3.0 in children birth order "4 or more." Results are not different when isolated and syndromic cases are combined. Conclusions: CL/P and CP occurrence is correlated with increasing birth order. Further studies, taking into consideration sample size and factors such as income status, race, paternal age, vitamin intake, and social habits, should be done to determine conclusively the association between birth order and oral clefts. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


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Item Type: Article
Status: Published
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Vieira, ARarv11@pitt.eduARV11
Orioli, IM
Date: 1 November 2002
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: Teratology
Volume: 66
Number: 5
Page Range: 209 - 216
DOI or Unique Handle: 10.1002/tera.10088
Schools and Programs: School of Dental Medicine > Dental Science
Refereed: Yes
ISSN: 0040-3709
Date Deposited: 01 Mar 2013 19:32
Last Modified: 20 Feb 2020 13:55


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