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SIVagm Infection in Wild African Green Monkeys from South Africa: Epidemiology, Natural History, and Evolutionary Considerations

Ma, D and Jasinska, A and Kristoff, J and Grobler, JP and Turner, T and Jung, Y and Schmitt, C and Raehtz, K and Feyertag, F and Martinez Sosa, N and Wijewardana, V and Burke, DS and Robertson, DL and Tracy, R and Pandrea, I and Freimer, N and Apetrei, C (2013) SIVagm Infection in Wild African Green Monkeys from South Africa: Epidemiology, Natural History, and Evolutionary Considerations. PLoS Pathogens, 9 (1). ISSN 1553-7366

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Abstract

Pathogenesis studies of SIV infection have not been performed to date in wild monkeys due to difficulty in collecting and storing samples on site and the lack of analytical reagents covering the extensive SIV diversity. We performed a large scale study of molecular epidemiology and natural history of SIVagm infection in 225 free-ranging AGMs from multiple locations in South Africa. SIV prevalence (established by sequencing pol, env, and gag) varied dramatically between infant/juvenile (7%) and adult animals (68%) (p<0.0001), and between adult females (78%) and males (57%). Phylogenetic analyses revealed an extensive genetic diversity, including frequent recombination events. Some AGMs harbored epidemiologically linked viruses. Viruses infecting AGMs in the Free State, which are separated from those on the coastal side by the Drakensberg Mountains, formed a separate cluster in the phylogenetic trees; this observation supports a long standing presence of SIV in AGMs, at least from the time of their speciation to their Plio-Pleistocene migration. Specific primers/probes were synthesized based on the pol sequence data and viral loads (VLs) were quantified. VLs were of 104-106 RNA copies/ml, in the range of those observed in experimentally-infected monkeys, validating the experimental approaches in natural hosts. VLs were significantly higher (107-108 RNA copies/ml) in 10 AGMs diagnosed as acutely infected based on SIV seronegativity (Fiebig II), which suggests a very active transmission of SIVagm in the wild. Neither cytokine levels (as biomarkers of immune activation) nor sCD14 levels (a biomarker of microbial translocation) were different between SIV-infected and SIV-uninfected monkeys. This complex algorithm combining sequencing and phylogeny, VL quantification, serology, and testing of surrogate markers of microbial translocation and immune activation permits a systematic investigation of the epidemiology, viral diversity and natural history of SIV infection in wild African natural hosts. © 2013 Ma et al.


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Details

Item Type: Article
Status: Published
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Ma, Ddom13@pitt.eduDOM13
Jasinska, A
Kristoff, Jjak83@pitt.eduJAK83
Grobler, JP
Turner, T
Jung, Y
Schmitt, C
Raehtz, Kkdr26@pitt.eduKDR26
Feyertag, F
Martinez Sosa, N
Wijewardana, V
Burke, DSdonburke@pitt.eduDONBURKE
Robertson, DL
Tracy, R
Pandrea, I
Freimer, N
Apetrei, Capetreic@pitt.eduAPETREIC
Centers: Other Centers, Institutes, or Units > Center for Vaccine Research
Date: 1 January 2013
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: PLoS Pathogens
Volume: 9
Number: 1
DOI or Unique Handle: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003011
Schools and Programs: School of Medicine > Microbiology and Molecular Genetics
School of Medicine > Pathology
Graduate School of Public Health > Epidemiology
Refereed: Yes
ISSN: 1553-7366
Other ID: NLM PMC3547836
PubMed Central ID: PMC3547836
PubMed ID: 23349627
Date Deposited: 14 Mar 2013 14:31
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2019 16:57
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/17723

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