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Born Into Disadvantage, Living Through Disadvantage, Dying from Disadvantage: A Systematic Literature Review of the Importance of Mentoring for Urban African American Adolescent Males

Kenyon, Julie (2013) Born Into Disadvantage, Living Through Disadvantage, Dying from Disadvantage: A Systematic Literature Review of the Importance of Mentoring for Urban African American Adolescent Males. Master's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

Background: African American males disproportionately suffered from shorter lifespans, lower quality of life and greater mortality rates. African American males experienced excessive rates of HIV/AIDS infections. These poorer health outcomes were often provoked by weak social connections, higher levels of stress, low socioeconomic status, brief or unsatisfactory education and limited access to health services. African American adolescents who lived in urban areas had more exposure to harmful environmental influences. Additionally, urban African American adolescent males who dropped out of school were at greater risk for incarceration, underemployment, and participation in crime. Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic literature review to examine the relationship between mentors and/or adult role models and increase in academic achievement among urban African American adolescent males. The hypothesis was that the mentor and/or role model relationships increased academic achievement in urban African American adolescent males. Additionally, it was thought that mentors and/or role models would serve as a protective factor against negative influences. The literature was explored to identify how positive adult expectations influenced academic achievement in urban African American adolescent males, specifically in negative environmental circumstances and; how self-efficacy affected prolonged academic success. Results: The results showed that mentors and/or role models were able to increase academic performance in urban African American adolescent males. They were also able to increase racial/ethnic identity. Furthermore, psychosocial functioning was improved. Conclusion: Mentoring and/or role modeling was able to increase academic achievement and racial/ethnic identity by providing urban African American adolescent males with support and encouragement. Racial/ethnic identity was shown to be associated with academic achievement. African American adolescent males experienced increased school grades, beliefs of school importance, school attachment, and racial/ethnic identity when they had mentors and/or role models present. Public health significance: Mentors and/or role models could serve as protective factors against negative influences. Mentors and/or role models could increase academic performance and provide guidance and support for adolescent males with weak social connection. Mentors and/or role models could increase racial/ethnic identity in youth which improves pride and self-awareness.


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Details

Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Kenyon, Juliejulie.kenyon22@gmail.com
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairNolan, Nolan A.Dnolanbeth@gmail.com
Committee MemberDocumet, Patricia Idocumetp@yahoo.com
Committee MemberLin, Michael Klinm@pitt.eduLINM
Date: 27 June 2013
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 22 March 2013
Approval Date: 27 June 2013
Submission Date: 17 April 2013
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Number of Pages: 56
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Behavioral and Community Health Sciences
Degree: MPH - Master of Public Health
Thesis Type: Master's Thesis
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: mentoring, role models, african american adolescent males, academic achievement
Date Deposited: 27 Jun 2013 18:07
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2016 14:11
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/18459

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