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The national HIV/AIDS strategy: efforts to improve HIV incidence and access to care among homeless populations

Mannion, Mary Kate (2013) The national HIV/AIDS strategy: efforts to improve HIV incidence and access to care among homeless populations. Master Essay, University of Pittsburgh.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research is to consider how the goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) will be effective in reducing HIV risk and/or HIV incidence. This research is aiming to identify what the most effective strategies are to target homeless HIV positive individuals, and to identify issues for future research. This research is significant to public health because of the potential impact of targeted measures to reduce the number of individuals unaware of their HIV positive status, thus reducing HIV transmission and improving the HIV epidemic in the United States. METHODS: The method used for this research was a literature review. The search terms used for the literature search were “homelessness,” “HIV,” and “housing.” This search was limited to information and research in the United States, between the years of 1995-2012. RESULTS: From the articles included in the review, two main themes that emerged were prevention of behavioral risk factors for HIV in homeless populations, and the study of healthcare utilization as a determinant of HIV and housing status. It was found that the majority of participants who were homeless and either HIV positive or at high risk were men who experienced substance abuse issues and engaged in unprotected sex. Women also engaged in unprotected sex and substance abuse, but reported more survival sex than men. Homeless individuals were more likely to use the Emergency Department for healthcare needs, and that HIV care improved, and HIV risk decreased with housing services. DISCUSSION: Information from the literature indicated that housing status is associated with HIV risk behaviors and/or HIV positive status. Other contributing factors were case management and supportive services for mental health and substance abuse issues. There were also cost implications. Individuals who were housed versus homeless utilized emergency services much less, and took advantage of primary care and preventative services. CONCLUSION: Housing services improve overall health of homeless individuals, and greatly reduce HIV risk behaviors and incidence of HIV infection. Different housing strategies and cost-benefits should be considered for use in the NHAS to reduce the number of HIV positive homeless individuals.


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Details

Item Type: Other Thesis, Dissertation, or Long Paper (Master Essay)
Status: Unpublished
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Mannion, Mary Kate
Contributors:
ContributionContributors NameEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairSilvestre, Anthonytonys@pitt.eduTONYSUNSPECIFIED
Committee MemberTerry, Martha Annmaterry@pitt.eduMATERRYUNSPECIFIED
Date: 19 April 2013
Date Type: Publication
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
Degree: MPH - Master of Public Health
Thesis Type: Master Essay
Refereed: Yes
Date Deposited: 06 May 2015 19:28
Last Modified: 04 Feb 2019 15:03
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/18617

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