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Visual Metaphors for Modeling Metacognitive Strategies that Support Memory During the Information Search Process

Bowler, Leanne and Mattern, Eleanor (2013) Visual Metaphors for Modeling Metacognitive Strategies that Support Memory During the Information Search Process. In: IIiX Fourth Information in Interaction in Context Symposium, August 21-24, 2012, Nijmegan, The Netherlands .

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This paper reports on a study that models the metacognitive thinking of users in relation to memory and refinding information. Twenty-seven participants, in five separate groups ranging in age from 13 to early 30's, sketched visual metaphors representing strategies and interventions that the participants thought would remind them to remember before information was lost, in order to better relocate information. Nine themes emerged: embeddedness, fear and anxiety, interruptions, messiness and discomfort, locked doors and barriers, proximity and adjacency, signs and tattoos, scripts, and finally, the voice. This study started from the premise that design should begin with the user's metaphor as a way to describe the user's mind and ways of thinking and end with the designer mapping the metaphor to the artifact. The long term goal of this work is to move from ideation to implementation, using the users' metaphors of the mind as a basis for the design of information environments that scaffold metacognition during the search process.


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Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Poster)
Status: Published
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Bowler, Leannelbowler@sis.pitt.eduLBOWLER
Mattern, Eleanoremm100@pitt.eduEMM1000000-0002-0421-0983
Date: 21 August 2013
Date Type: Publication
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Event Title: IIiX Fourth Information in Interaction in Context Symposium
Event Dates: August 21-24, 2012
Event Type: Conference
DOI or Unique Handle: 10.1145/2362724.2362767
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: School of Information Sciences > Library and Information Science
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Design, human Factors, refinding information, metaphor, memory, metamemory, metacognition, information seeking behavior
Official URL:
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 17 Jun 2013 18:42
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2016 14:13


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