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Pharmacoepidemiologic Studies: An Interrupted-time Series Analysis on Drug Utilization and Evalution of Beneficial or Adverse Drug Effects

Lo-Ciganic, Wei-Hsuan (2013) Pharmacoepidemiologic Studies: An Interrupted-time Series Analysis on Drug Utilization and Evalution of Beneficial or Adverse Drug Effects. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

Background: Pharmacoepidemiologic research is a valuable tool to enable one to understand medication utilization patterns, beneficial/harmful outcomes of drug therapy, and to evaluate the impact of other interventions on outcomes of drug therapy in “real-world” settings.
Objectives: This dissertation aimed to apply pharmacoepidemiologic methods to examine (1) changes in utilization patterns of cholesterol-lowering medications following the release of the guidelines and evidence-based data, (2) the associations between statin use and gait speed decline in older adults, and (3) the associations between aspirin, non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen and risk of ovarian cancer.
Methods: The study samples were from two sources including (1) community-dwelling older adults in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study, and (2) 902 women with ovarian cancer and 1,802 controls in a population-based case-control study. An interrupted time-series analysis, multivariable generalized estimating equations, and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine our three objectives, respectively.
Results: First, the use of cholesterol-lowering medication increased substantially over a decade in older adults, but was not related to a change in level or trend following the release of the evidence-based guidelines. Secondly, statin use had a decreased risk of gait speed decline. Thirdly, risk reductions of ovarian cancer were observed with the use of aspirin or selective COX-2 inhibitors.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that further studies are needed to investigate risk-benefit balance of cholesterol-lowering therapy and the potential benefits/barriers of the treatment among adults aged ≥ 80 years. Moreover, further investigations are warranted to confirm the risk-benefit balance of statin use and physical function decline in older adults. Future research on the associations between aspirin use and the risk of ovarian cancer should better characterize accompanying medical conditions, health and lifestyle behaviors, genetic susceptibility, and the overall risk-benefit balance. The public health relevance of these findings is that understanding the utilization patterns of cholesterol-lowering therapy and potential benefits of statins on physical function may prevent cardiovascular disease and disability in older adults. In addition, aspirin or COX-2 inhibitors may be potential agents for the prevention of ovarian cancer, the second leading gynecologic cancer in the US.


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Details

Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Lo-Ciganic, Wei-Hsuanwel32@pitt.eduWEL32
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairZgibor, Janice C.edcjan@pitt.eduEDCJAN
Committee MemberBoudreau, Robert MBoudreauR@edc.pitt.eduROB21
Committee MemberBunker, ClareannBUNKERC@pitt.edu)
Committee MemberDonohue, Juliejdonohue@pitt.eduJDONOHUE
Committee MemberHanlon, Josephjth14@pitt.eduJTH14
Committee MemberStrotmeyer, Elsastrotmeyere@edc.pitt.eduELSST21
Date: 27 September 2013
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 24 July 2013
Approval Date: 27 September 2013
Submission Date: 16 July 2013
Access Restriction: 1 year -- Restrict access to University of Pittsburgh for a period of 1 year.
Number of Pages: 226
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Epidemiology
Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: pharmacoepidemiology, drug utilization, risk-benefit evaluation, statins, physical function, aging, older adults
Date Deposited: 27 Sep 2013 14:50
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2016 14:14
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/19269

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