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Drug Resistant Infectious Diseases. Examples of Public health Problems with Antimicrobial, Antiretroviral and Antimalarial Resistance in Nigeria

Banjoko, Yetunde /T (2013) Drug Resistant Infectious Diseases. Examples of Public health Problems with Antimicrobial, Antiretroviral and Antimalarial Resistance in Nigeria. Master Essay, University of Pittsburgh.

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Abstract

Drug resistant infectious diseases are a part of emerging infectious diseases worldwide. They have steadily increased in incidence over time and are still increasing presently all over the world. This is a huge public health problem and therefore reduction in these diseases is of great public health relevance. A literature review was done to examine the extent of drug – resistant infectious disease and the potential contribution to this problem by the rampant use of antibiotics, improper use of prescribed antibiotics and the healthcare system in Nigeria. Rampant use of antibiotics is a health issue in Nigeria because pharmacists and chemists act as physicians and prescribe unnecessary antibiotics for the requesting public. Education about the consequences of inappropriate use of antibiotics seems to have gone without notice. The use of antibiotics not recommended by physicians is astounding. Even worse is the over the counter availability of a large amount of the existing antibiotics in the country. Poor drug quality is also a major contributing factor. The National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) is a Nigerian government agency under the Federal Ministry of Health that is responsible for regulating and controlling the manufacture, importation, exportation, advertisement, distribution, sale and use of food, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, chemicals and packaged water. Counterfeit medications are dangerous and should not be sold in any country. Ineffective enforcement of existing laws by NAFDAC allows for several unregistered pharmacies all over the country. Ever since the discovery of Penicillin and its successful use as an antibiotic, there have been a wide range of antibiotics produced that have helped greatly in the reduction of infectious diseases. The effectiveness of antibiotics cannot be disputed. Over the years however, micro-organisms have found ways to avoid being killed by adapting and mutating. These microbes have become resistant to previously effective medication, resulting in increased costs to treat an otherwise simple infection. These drug resistance infectious diseases are also a great cause of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria hence the public health significance.


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Details

Item Type: Other Thesis, Dissertation, or Long Paper (Master Essay)
Status: Unpublished
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Banjoko, Yetunde /T
Contributors:
ContributionContributors NameEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairKingsley, Lawrence Akingsley@pitt.eduKINGSLEYUNSPECIFIED
Committee MemberKammerer, Candacecmk3@pitt.eduCMK3UNSPECIFIED
Date: November 2013
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: November 2013
Submission Date: 20 November 2013
Access Restriction: 5 year -- Restrict access to University of Pittsburgh for a period of 5 years.
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
Degree: MPH - Master of Public Health
Thesis Type: Master Essay
Refereed: No
Uncontrolled Keywords: Drug, resistant, infectious, diseases, antimicrobial, resistance, antiretroviral, resistance, antimalarial, resistance
Date Deposited: 12 Feb 2014 14:23
Last Modified: 04 Feb 2019 14:58
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/20047

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