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Programs to increase HIV testing and counseling: The doorway to prevent and control HIV among vulnerable populations

Leyland, Bridget (2014) Programs to increase HIV testing and counseling: The doorway to prevent and control HIV among vulnerable populations. Master Essay, University of Pittsburgh.

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Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a preventable cause of disease that infects approximately 50,000 individuals annually in the United States. Not all individuals are impacted equally and health disparities exist among racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities. Routine screening for HIV has been effective in certain populations, but widespread testing has been limited. National guidelines call for routine HIV screening among individuals aged 13-64 years seeking healthcare; however, implementation has been hindered due to barriers at the individual, health system, and societal level. HIV prevention counseling is also recommended for high risk individuals, but not required as part of routine testing because of time and staffing restraints. A number of HIV testing program interventions have sought to streamline testing and counseling procedures to combat such barriers. This review aims to summarize HIV testing and counseling programs in the U.S., the effect on individual and public health, and offer directives for future use of HIV screening. The public health importance for increasing knowledge of HIV status will benefit HIV positive individuals by promoting early entry into care and faster time to treatment. Both HIV positive and negative individuals may benefit from HIV prevention education to reduce their risk for transmitting or acquiring HIV, thus control the spread of infection.


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Details

Item Type: Other Thesis, Dissertation, or Long Paper (Master Essay)
Status: Unpublished
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Leyland, Bridgetbrl40@pitt.eduBRL40
Contributors:
ContributionContributors NameEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairBarratt-Boyes, Simon Msmbb@pitt.eduSMBBUNSPECIFIED
Committee MemberFrank, Linda Rosefrankie@pitt.eduFRANKIEUNSPECIFIED
Committee MemberFriedman, Mark Smsf11@pitt.eduMSF11UNSPECIFIED
Date: 24 April 2014
Date Type: Publication
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
Degree: MPH - Master of Public Health
Thesis Type: Master Essay
Refereed: Yes
Date Deposited: 13 Nov 2014 21:08
Last Modified: 31 Jul 2020 19:06
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/20780

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