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The relationship between neighborhood alcohol outlet density and youth violence: a systematic review

Mellers, Michelle (2014) The relationship between neighborhood alcohol outlet density and youth violence: a systematic review. Master Essay, University of Pittsburgh.

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Abstract

Background: Violence continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. Access to alcohol has been found to cause harmful behaviors such as violence, so it has been hypothesized that higher alcohol outlet density is associated with higher rates of violence. However, the results of studies assessing this association are inconsistent. In particular, the results vary by study design, type of alcohol outlet, and severity of violence. In this review, we aim to review the literature and assess whether levels of alcohol outlet density are related to neighborhood violence. Methods: We conducted a literature search on OVID using keywords that were related to “alcohol outlet density” or “violence”. We defined alcohol outlet density as any type of distribution center for alcohol (off-premise, on-premise, restaurant, bar, etc.) in a unit area. We defined violence as any type of violence as defined in ICD-9 or police crime statistics reports such as homicide or assault. We excluded articles that focused on: intimate partner violence, LGBT violence, or violence concentrated in a college setting. Results: Using our inclusion/exclusion criteria we found 41 articles. The first article we found was published in 1981 and looked at violence in Cleveland, OH in 1970. The most recent articles were three articles published in 2013. The early articles tended to use linear regression and models with few covariates and later papers tended to use Bayesian statistics with more covariates. Most of the articles tended to use small spatial units such as census tracts or block groups. The articles reported finding different effect sizes with some reporting finding no effect and others finding a large effect, results varied by off vs. on premises outlets as well as severity of violence. Conclusion: We found that the articles do not provide clear evidence of an association between AOD and violence. The replicability between the studies was low and the results of the studies are too varied to draw a conclusion. We found that some of this difference may be due to methodological weaknesses. Future research should differentiate between types of alcohol outlets and severity of violence.


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Details

Item Type: Other Thesis, Dissertation, or Long Paper (Master Essay)
Status: Unpublished
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Mellers, Michellemsm76@pitt.eduMSM76
Contributors:
ContributionContributors NameEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairFabio, Anthonyafabio@pitt.eduAFABIOUNSPECIFIED
Committee MemberSharma, Ravirks1946@pitt.eduRKS1946UNSPECIFIED
Date: April 2014
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 25 April 2014
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Epidemiology
Degree: MPH - Master of Public Health
Thesis Type: Master Essay
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: violent, crime
Date Deposited: 28 May 2015 14:42
Last Modified: 31 Jul 2020 19:07
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/21493

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