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Aflatoxin regulations and global pistachio trade: Insights from social network analysis

Bui-Klimke, TR and Guclu, H and Kensler, TW and Yuan, JM and Wu, F (2014) Aflatoxin regulations and global pistachio trade: Insights from social network analysis. PLoS ONE, 9 (3).

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Abstract

Aflatoxins, carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus fungi, contaminate maize, peanuts, and tree nuts in many regions of the world. Pistachios are the main source of human dietary aflatoxins from tree nuts worldwide. Over 120 countries have regulations for maximum allowable aflatoxin levels in food commodities. We developed social network models to analyze the association between nations' aflatoxin regulations and global trade patterns of pistachios from 1996-2010. The main pistachio producing countries are Iran and the United States (US), which together contribute to nearly 75% of the total global pistachio market. Over this time period, during which many nations developed or changed their aflatoxin regulations in pistachios, global pistachio trade patterns changed; with the US increasingly exporting to countries with stricter aflatoxin standards. The US pistachio crop has had consistently lower levels of aflatoxin than the Iranian crop over this same time period. As similar trading patterns have also been documented in maize, public health may be affected if countries without aflatoxin regulations, or with more relaxed regulations, continually import crops with higher aflatoxin contamination. Unlike the previous studies on maize, this analysis includes a dynamic element, examining how trade patterns change over time with introduction or adjustment of aflatoxin regulations. © 2014 Bui-Klimke et al.


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Details

Item Type: Article
Status: Published
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Bui-Klimke, TR
Guclu, Hguclu@pitt.eduGUCLU
Kensler, TWtkensler@pitt.eduTKENSLER
Yuan, JMyuanj@pitt.eduYUANJ
Wu, Ffew8@pitt.eduFEW8
Contributors:
ContributionContributors NameEmailPitt UsernameORCID
EditorHolme, PetterUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date: 26 March 2014
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: PLoS ONE
Volume: 9
Number: 3
DOI or Unique Handle: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092149
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Biostatistics
Graduate School of Public Health > Environmental and Occupational Health
Graduate School of Public Health > Epidemiology
School of Medicine > Pharmacology and Chemical Biology
Refereed: Yes
Date Deposited: 30 Jun 2014 15:49
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2019 15:55
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/21949

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