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Development and validation of a smoking media literacy scale for adolescents

Primack, BA and Gold, MA and Switzer, GE and Hobbs, R and Land, SR and Fine, MJ (2006) Development and validation of a smoking media literacy scale for adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 160 (4). 369 - 374. ISSN 1072-4710

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Objectives: To develop a smoking media literacy (SML) scale by using empiric survey data from a large sample of high school students and to assess reliability and criterion validity of the scale. Design: On the basis of an established theoretical framework, 120 potential items were generated, and items were eliminated or altered on the basis of input from experts and students. Cross-sectional responses to scale items, demographics, smoking-related variables, and multiple covariates were obtained to refine the scale and determine its reliability and validity. Setting: One large Pittsburgh, Pa, high school. Participants: A total of 1211 high school students aged 14 to 18 years. Main Outcome Measures: Current smoking, susceptibility to smoking, attitudes toward smoking, and smoking norms. Results: Factor analysis demonstrated a strong 1-factor scale with 18 items (α=0.87). After controlling for all covariate data, SML had a statistically significant and independent association with current smoking (P=.01), susceptibility (P<.001), and attitudes (P<.001), but not norms (P=.42). Controlling for all covariates, an increase of 1 point on the 10-point SML scale was associated with a 22% decrease in the odds of being a smoker and a 31% decrease in the odds of being susceptible to smoking. Conclusions: Smoking media literacy can be measured with excellent reliability and concurrent criterion validity. Given the independent association between SML and smoking, media literacy may be a promising tool for future tobacco control interventions. ©2006 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


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Item Type: Article
Status: Published
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Primack, BAbprimack@pitt.eduBPRIMACK
Gold, MA
Switzer, GEgswitzer@pitt.eduGSWITZER
Hobbs, R
Land, SR
Fine, MJmjf1@pitt.eduMJF10000-0003-3470-9846
Centers: Other Centers, Institutes, Offices, or Units > Center for Research on Media, Technology, and Health
Date: 1 April 2006
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
Volume: 160
Number: 4
Page Range: 369 - 374
DOI or Unique Handle: 10.1001/archpedi.160.4.369
Schools and Programs: School of Medicine > Medicine
School of Medicine > Pediatrics
Refereed: Yes
ISSN: 1072-4710
MeSH Headings: Adolescent; Adolescent Behavior; Attitude to Health; Confounding Factors (Epidemiology); Cross-Sectional Studies; Data Collection; Education--statistics & numerical data; Female; Humans; Male; Mass Media--statistics & numerical data; Multivariate Analysis; Pennsylvania--epidemiology; Predictive Value of Tests; Program Development; Reproducibility of Results; Risk Factors; Smoking--epidemiology; Students--statistics & numerical data
Other ID: NLM NIHMS256777, NLM PMC3001232
PubMed Central ID: PMC3001232
PubMed ID: 16585481
Date Deposited: 18 Jul 2014 21:36
Last Modified: 01 Nov 2021 10:55


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