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Volume of tobacco advertising in African American markets: Systematic review and meta-analysis

Primack, BA and Bost, JE and Land, SR and Fine, MJ (2007) Volume of tobacco advertising in African American markets: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Public Health Reports, 122 (5). 607 - 615. ISSN 0033-3549

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Objective. African Americans currently bear the greatest burden of morbidity and mortality due to smoking, and exposure to pro-tobacco media messages predicts smoking. This study compared the concentration (proportion of media messages that are for tobacco) and density (pro-tobacco media messages per person) of pro-tobacco media messages between African American and Caucasian markets. Methods. We searched Medline (1966 to June 2006), PsychINFO (1974 to June 2006), and CINAHL (1982 to June 2006) for studies from peer-reviewed journals directly comparing the volume of pro-tobacco media messages in African American and Caucasian markets. From each study, we extracted the number of total media messages, the number of tobacco-related messages, and the number of residents living in each market area. We calculated the concentration and density of tobacco advertising in each market. Results. Out of 131 studies identified, 11 met eligibility criteria, including seven comparing billboard/signage in African American and Caucasian markets and four comparing magazine advertising in African American and Caucasian markets. Meta-analysis estimated a pooled odds ratio of 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 2.6) for a given billboard being smoking-related in African American vs. Caucasian market areas (i.e., concentration). The pooled rate ratio of the density of smoking-related billboards was 2.6 (95% CI 1.5, 4.7) in African American vs. Caucasian market areas. Magazine data were insufficient for meta-analysis. Conclusion. Available data indicated that African Americans are exposed to a higher volume of pro-tobacco advertising in terms of both concentration and density. These findings have important implications for research, policy measures, and educational interventions involving racial disparities due to tobacco. ©2007 Association of Schools of Public Health.


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Item Type: Article
Status: Published
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Primack, BAbprimack@pitt.eduBPRIMACK
Bost, JE
Land, SR
Fine, MJmjf1@pitt.eduMJF10000-0003-3470-9846
Centers: Other Centers, Institutes, Offices, or Units > Center for Research on Media, Technology, and Health
Date: 1 January 2007
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: Public Health Reports
Volume: 122
Number: 5
Page Range: 607 - 615
DOI or Unique Handle: 10.1177/003335490712200508
Schools and Programs: School of Medicine > Medicine
School of Medicine > Pediatrics
Refereed: Yes
ISSN: 0033-3549
MeSH Headings: Advertising as Topic--utilization; African Americans; Humans; Tobacco Industry; United States
Other ID: NLM PMC1936959
PubMed Central ID: PMC1936959
PubMed ID: 17877308
Date Deposited: 28 Jul 2014 17:57
Last Modified: 01 Nov 2021 10:55


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