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Association between media use in adolescence and depression in young adulthood: A longitudinal study

Primack, BA and Swanier, B and Georgiopoulos, AM and Land, SR and Fine, MJ (2009) Association between media use in adolescence and depression in young adulthood: A longitudinal study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66 (2). 181 - 188. ISSN 0003-990X

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Context: Although certain media exposures have been linked to the presence of psychiatric conditions, few studies have investigated the association between media exposure and depression. Objective: To assess the longitudinal association between media exposure in adolescence and depression in young adulthood in a nationally representative sample. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Setting and Participants: We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to investigate the relationship between electronic media exposure in 4142 adolescents who were not depressed at baseline and subsequent development of depression after 7 years of follow-up. Main Outcome Measure: Depression at follow-up assessed using the 9-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. Results: Of the 4142 participants (47.5% female and 67.0% white) who were not depressed at baseline and who underwent follow-up assessment, 308 (7.4%) reported symptoms consistent with depression at follow-up. Controlling for all covariates including baseline Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale score, those reporting more television use had significantly greater odds of developing depression (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.08 [1.01-1.16]) for each additional hour of daily television use. In addition, those reporting more total media exposure had significantly greater odds of developing depression (1.05 [1.0004-1.10]) for each additional hour of daily use. We did not find a consistent relationship between development of depressive symptoms and exposure to videocassettes, computer games, or radio. Compared with young men, young women were less likely to develop depression given the same total media exposure (odds ratio for interaction term, 0.93 [0.88-0.99]). Conclusion: Television exposure and total media exposure in adolescence are associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms in young adulthood, especially in young men. © 2009 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


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Item Type: Article
Status: Published
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Primack, BAbprimack@pitt.eduBPRIMACK
Swanier, B
Georgiopoulos, AM
Land, SR
Fine, MJmjf1@pitt.eduMJF10000-0003-3470-9846
Centers: Other Centers, Institutes, Offices, or Units > Center for Research on Media, Technology, and Health
Date: 1 February 2009
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: Archives of General Psychiatry
Volume: 66
Number: 2
Page Range: 181 - 188
DOI or Unique Handle: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2008.532
Schools and Programs: School of Medicine > Medicine
School of Medicine > Pediatrics
Refereed: Yes
ISSN: 0003-990X
MeSH Headings: Adolescent; Depressive Disorder--diagnosis; Depressive Disorder--epidemiology; Depressive Disorder--psychology; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Mass Media--utilization; Odds Ratio; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; Social Environment; Television--utilization; United States; Utilization Review
Other ID: NLM NIHMS256340, NLM PMC3004674
PubMed Central ID: PMC3004674
PubMed ID: 19188540
Date Deposited: 28 Jul 2014 17:54
Last Modified: 01 Nov 2021 10:55


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