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Motives for smoking in movies affect future smoking risk in middle school students: An experimental investigation

Shadel, WG and Martino, SC and Setodji, C and Haviland, A and Primack, BA and Scharf, D (2012) Motives for smoking in movies affect future smoking risk in middle school students: An experimental investigation. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 123 (1-3). 66 - 71. ISSN 0376-8716

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Background: Exposure to smoking in movies has been linked to adolescent smoking uptake. However, beyond linking amount of exposure to smoking in movies with adolescent smoking, whether the way that smoking is portrayed in movies matters for influencing adolescent smoking has not been investigated. This study experimentally examined how motivation for smoking depicted in movies affects self-reported future smoking risk (a composite measure with items that assess smoking refusal self-efficacy and smoking intentions) among early adolescents. Methods: A randomized laboratory experiment was used. Adolescents were exposed to movie scenes depicting one of three movie smoking motives: social smoking motive (characters smoked to facilitate social interaction); relaxation smoking motive (characters smoked to relax); or no smoking motive (characters smoked with no apparent motive, i.e., in neutral contexts and/or with neutral affect). Responses to these movie scenes were contrasted (within subjects) to participants' responses to control movie scenes in which no smoking was present; these control scenes matched to the smoking scenes with the same characters in similar situations but where no smoking was present. A total of 358 adolescents, aged 11-14 years, participated. Results: Compared with participants exposed to movie scenes depicting characters smoking with no clear motive, adolescents exposed to movie scenes depicting characters smoking for social motives and adolescents exposed to movie scenes depicting characters smoking for relaxation motives had significantly greater chances of having increases in their future smoking risk. Conclusions: Exposure to movies that portray smoking motives places adolescents at particular risk for future smoking. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


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Item Type: Article
Status: Published
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Shadel, WGwgs1@pitt.eduWGS1
Martino, SC
Setodji, C
Haviland, A
Primack, BAbprimack@pitt.eduBPRIMACK
Scharf, D
Centers: Other Centers, Institutes, Offices, or Units > Center for Research on Media, Technology, and Health
Date: 1 June 2012
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume: 123
Number: 1-3
Page Range: 66 - 71
DOI or Unique Handle: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.10.019
Schools and Programs: Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences > Psychology
School of Medicine > Medicine
School of Medicine > Pediatrics
Refereed: Yes
ISSN: 0376-8716
MeSH Headings: Adolescent; Adolescent Behavior; Age Factors; Attitude; Child; Ethnic Groups; Female; Humans; Male; Motion Pictures as Topic; Motivation; Risk; Smoking--psychology; Students
Other ID: NLM NIHMS334364, NLM PMC3288217
PubMed Central ID: PMC3288217
PubMed ID: 22074766
Date Deposited: 29 Jul 2014 21:40
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2019 15:59


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