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The nature of feedback: How different types of peer feedback affect writing performance

Nelson, MM and Schunn, CD (2009) The nature of feedback: How different types of peer feedback affect writing performance. Instructional Science, 37 (4). 375 - 401. ISSN 0020-4277

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Although providing feedback is commonly practiced in education, there is no general agreement regarding what type of feedback is most helpful and why it is helpful. This study examined the relationship between various types of feedback, potential internal mediators, and the likelihood of implementing feedback. Five main predictions were developed from the feedback literature in writing, specifically regarding feedback features (summarization, identifying problems, providing solutions, localization, explanations, scope, praise, and mitigating language) as they relate to potential causal mediators of problem or solution understanding and problem or solution agreement, leading to the final outcome of feedback implementation. To empirically test the proposed feedback model, 1,073 feedback segments from writing assessed by peers was analyzed. Feedback was collected using SWoRD, an online peer review system. Each segment was coded for each of the feedback features, implementation, agreement, and understanding. The correlations between the feedback features, levels of mediating variables, and implementation rates revealed several significant relationships. Understanding was the only significant mediator of implementation. Several feedback features were associated with understanding: including solutions, a summary of the performance, and the location of the problem were associated with increased understanding; and explanations of problems were associated with decreased understanding. Implications of these results are discussed. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


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Item Type: Article
Status: Published
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Nelson, MM
Schunn, CDschunn@pitt.eduSCHUNN0000-0003-3589-297X
Centers: Other Centers, Institutes, Offices, or Units > Learning Research & Development Center
Date: 1 July 2009
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: Instructional Science
Volume: 37
Number: 4
Page Range: 375 - 401
DOI or Unique Handle: 10.1007/s11251-008-9053-x
Schools and Programs: Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences > Psychology
Refereed: Yes
ISSN: 0020-4277
Date Deposited: 07 Aug 2014 16:47
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2019 15:56


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