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Relationship Between Daytime Napping and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Healthy Black and White Adolescents

Jakubowski, Karen Patricia (2015) Relationship Between Daytime Napping and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Healthy Black and White Adolescents. Master's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Purpose: Short nocturnal sleep leads to more napping in adolescents, and more napping leads to short nocturnal sleep. Short nocturnal sleep has been associated with elevated cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in adolescents in some studies. However, it is unclear if daytime napping is also associated with increased CV risk factors. We investigated whether napping (measured by actigraphy and daily diary measures) was related to elevated CV risk factors, and explored potential moderators of the napping – CV risk relationship: physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and interpersonal conflict.

Methods: Participants were 234 healthy high school students (mean age=15.7, 56% black, 53% female). Nocturnal sleep and daytime napping were assessed with both actigraphy and daily diaries across one week. Physical activity and interpersonal conflict were measured by daily diary and questionnaire; sedentary behaviors were measured with questionnaire only. CV risk factors included: sex-standardized waist circumference (WC), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and 24-hour average systolic blood pressure (24-hour SBP). Linear regressions were used, adjusting for age, sex, race, average nocturnal sleep across the study period, and BMI percentile.

Results: More days napped by actigraphy was related to elevated IL-6 [B(SE)=.49(.21), p < .05] but lower 24-hour SBP [B(SE)=-5.29(2.64), p < .05]. Napping was not associated with WC, HOMA-IR, or hs-CRP. The relationship between average minutes napped by actigraphy and 24-hour SBP varied as a function of life events conflict (b = -.76, SE = .31, p = .015). At high levels of conflict, napping was associated with lower levels of 24-hour SBP, while at low or average levels of conflict, there was no effect of napping on 24-hour SBP. Neither physical activity nor sedentary behaviors emerged as moderators.

Conclusions: No consistent association of napping with CV risk factors was observed. However, actigraphy-derived napping was associated positively with circulating IL-6, a proinflammatory cytokine that is known to impact central inflammatory processes that relate to sleep regulation. Further examination of the direction of this effect is warranted. Results may differ in other age groups who are not as sleep deprived as is the case among adolescents.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Jakubowski, Karen Patriciakpj4@pitt.eduKPJ4
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairMatthews, Karen A
Committee MemberHall, Martica
Committee MemberMarsland, Anna L
Date: 9 January 2015
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 11 September 2014
Approval Date: 9 January 2015
Submission Date: 13 November 2014
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Number of Pages: 82
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences > Psychology
Degree: MS - Master of Science
Thesis Type: Master's Thesis
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: adolescents, napping, sleep, cardiovascular risk factors
Date Deposited: 09 Jan 2015 17:08
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2016 14:25


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