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Predictors of Compensatory Changes in Energy Balance following Exercise among Overweight and Obese, Sedentary Women

Emery, Rebecca (2015) Predictors of Compensatory Changes in Energy Balance following Exercise among Overweight and Obese, Sedentary Women. Master's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Although exercise produces an acute energy deficit, there is substantial variability in behavioral and biological responses to exercise that influence propensity for weight change. Indeed, some individuals compensate for exercise by increasing energy intake or decreasing physical activity energy expenditure, leading to a positive energy balance. This maladaptive pattern of behavioral compensation ultimately undermines the efficacy of exercise as a weight loss strategy. The present study aimed to identify individual differences, such as disinhibited eating, that elevate risk for a positive energy balance following exercise. Participants were 48 overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 25), sedentary women. On average, women were 21.33 (SD = 2.09) years old and 62.5% were white. Women completed self-report measures of eating pathology and behavior and participated in two experimental conditions, exercise and nonexercise, one week apart in a counterbalanced order. Energy intake and physical activity energy expenditure were measured for 24-hours following each condition to compute an estimate of energy balance. Women were defined as compensators if they increased energy intake, decreased energy expenditure, or had a higher energy balance on the exercise day relative to the nonexercise day. Of the sample, 63% compensated for exercise, with 57% compensating by solely increasing energy intake, 27% compensating by solely reducing physical activity energy expenditure, and 17% compensating by both increasing energy intake and reducing physical activity energy expenditure. Separate linear mixed effects models were used to identify predictors of behavioral compensation following exercise. Contrary to expectations, disinhibited eating did not predict behavioral compensation. However, objective binge eating was shown to predict compensatory increases in energy balance following exercise above and beyond relevant covariate effects. These findings provide preliminary evidence that women who report objective binge eating may be at greatest risk of compensating for exercise and further substantiate the need for a better understanding of psychosocial predictors and common mechanisms through which behavioral compensation is promoted to better inform intervention efforts.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Emery, Rebeccarle21@pitt.eduRLE21
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairLevine, Michele Dlevinem@upmc.eduMLEVINE
Committee MemberErickson, Kirk Ikiericks@pitt.eduKIERICKS
Committee MemberJakicic, Johnjjakicic@pitt.eduJJAKICIC
Committee MemberSayette, Michael Asayette@pitt.eduSAYETTE
Date: 8 June 2015
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 6 January 2015
Approval Date: 8 June 2015
Submission Date: 15 January 2015
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Number of Pages: 78
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences > Psychology
Degree: MS - Master of Science
Thesis Type: Master's Thesis
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: behavioral compensation, exercise, disinhibited eating, overweight, obese
Date Deposited: 08 Jun 2015 13:51
Last Modified: 19 Dec 2016 14:42


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