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Cross-species virus transmission and the emergence of new epidemic diseases

Parrish, CR and Holmes, EC and Morens, DM and Park, EC and Burke, DS and Calisher, CH and Laughlin, CA and Saif, LJ and Daszak, P (2008) Cross-species virus transmission and the emergence of new epidemic diseases. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 72 (3). 457 - 470. ISSN 1092-2172

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Host range is a viral property reflecting natural hosts that are infected either as part of a principal transmission cycle or, less commonly, as "spillover" infections into alternative hosts. Rarely, viruses gain the ability to spread efficiently within a new host that was not previously exposed or susceptible. These transfers involve either increased exposure or the acquisition of variations that allow them to overcome barriers to infection of the new hosts. In these cases, devastating outbreaks can result. Steps involved in transfers of viruses to new hosts include contact between the virus and the host, infection of an initial individual leading to amplification and an outbreak, and the generation within the original or new host of viral variants that have the ability to spread efficiently between individuals in populations of the new host. Here we review what is known about host switching leading to viral emergence from known examples, considering the evolutionary mechanisms, virus-host interactions, host range barriers to infection, and processes that allow efficient host-to-host transmission in the new host population. Copyright © 2008, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


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Item Type: Article
Status: Published
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Parrish, CR
Holmes, EC
Morens, DM
Park, EC
Burke, DSdonburke@pitt.eduDONBURKE
Calisher, CH
Laughlin, CA
Saif, LJ
Daszak, P
Centers: Other Centers, Institutes, Offices, or Units > Center for Vaccine Research
Date: 1 September 2008
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews
Volume: 72
Number: 3
Page Range: 457 - 470
DOI or Unique Handle: 10.1128/mmbr.00004-08
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Epidemiology
Refereed: Yes
ISSN: 1092-2172
Article Type: Review
Date Deposited: 08 May 2015 15:09
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2019 16:57


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