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Retrodialysis of Pharmacological Agents Mitigates Tissue Damage during Brain Microdialysis and Preserves Dopamine Activity in Surrounding Tissue

Nesbitt, Kathryn M (2015) Retrodialysis of Pharmacological Agents Mitigates Tissue Damage during Brain Microdialysis and Preserves Dopamine Activity in Surrounding Tissue. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Microdialysis is a powerful technique used to recover analytes from the brain. Microdialysis is compatible with multiple detectors allowing simultaneous analysis of neurotransmitters, metabolites, neuropeptides, and amino acids. The use of microdialysis has made advances in understanding brain function and diseases and is currently used to monitor traumatic brain injured patients. However, microdialysis probe implantation causes a penetration injury eliciting a foreign body response in the surrounding brain tissue. Tissue around the probe becomes unhealthy which brings into question, how the state of the tissue around the probe effects analytes that are recovered by microdialysis.
Dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in a variety of physiological functionality and neurological disorders, is often recovered using microdialysis. Dopamine is electroactive, and can also be measured using carbon fiber microelectrodes coupled with voltammetry. The small size of these electrodes allows for high spatial resolution without damaging the tissue. Using microelectrodes our lab has previously found that probe implantation creates a gradient of reductions in evoked dopamine responses the closer the electrode is to the probe. This dissertation builds off of this finding, with the goal of mitigating the penetration injury to preserve dopamine neurotransmission. First, it was discovered that probe implantation completely abolished evoked dopamine responses near probes. Administration of a dopamine transporter inhibitor showed that terminals survive probe implantation justifying our efforts to mitigate probe induced tissue damage. Retrodialysis of an anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone and a reactive oxygen species scavenger XJB-5-131 prevented dopamine terminal loss and preserved evoked dopamine responses for four hours. Further work proved that dexamethasone preserves evoked dopamine release for up to 24 hours. As dexamethasone is a steroid that could potentially affect neurotransmission, other pharmacological agents were investigated, all proving to improve evoked DA responses in tissue surrounding probes. Pharmacological mitigation of tissue damage provides new insight into acute extenuation of probe induced damage which has the potential to successfully mitigate chronic implantation for long-term in vivo monitoring of neurochemicals.
In a separate study, microelectrodes were used to spatially map dopamine responses in the rat brain. Distinct dopamine kinetics exist in sub-regions of the striatum that correlate to patch-matrix compartments.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Nesbitt, Kathryn Mkmn39@pitt.eduKMN39
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairMichael, Adrian/Camichael@pitt.eduAMICHAEL
Committee MemberAmemiya, Shigeruamemiya@pitt.eduAMEMIYA
Committee MemberRobinson, RenĂ£/A.S.rena@pitt.eduRENA
Committee MemberCui, Xinyan/Txic11@pitt.eduXIC11
Date: 22 June 2015
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 14 April 2015
Approval Date: 22 June 2015
Submission Date: 7 April 2015
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Number of Pages: 149
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences > Chemistry
Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Microdialysis, Voltammetry, Dopamine, Dexamethasone, Brain injury, Brain Mapping
Additional Information: This dissertation was first made available with access restricted to authenticated users at the University of Pittsburgh on 22 June 2015. Worldwide access began on 14 August 2015.
Date Deposited: 22 Jun 2015 15:32
Last Modified: 16 May 2017 20:56


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