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Moderating effects of occupational health exposures and medication adherence: models for improved adherence

Kearney, Shannon M. (2016) Moderating effects of occupational health exposures and medication adherence: models for improved adherence. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

Medication adherence is of great public health importance as medication non-adherence greatly affects chronic disease burden and total healthcare spending. This prospective research study hypothesizes the relationship between occupational factors and health behaviors by examining the theoretical link between medication adherence and job strain as characterized by an individual’s physical and psychological stressors. Such physical and psychological stressors can impact a worker’s confidence in his/her ability to exert control over his/her own motivation, behavior, and social environment (viz., self-efficacy) – factors that ultimately impact medication adherence. The study examines the association between job type and medication adherence in a population of individuals with diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Participants with a new or existing prescription for oral medications to treat diabetes or hyperlipidemia were enrolled into a randomized controlled trial at 34 national chain drugstores in Tennessee. Participants received standard care or a Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI) and a pillbox at the initial prescription fill, and at each additional refill, provided by a pharmacist. Medication adherence, health care utilization, psychosocial assessment, chronic disease status, and occupational health history data were obtained from the participants. Participants were then stratified by job class and job strain. Job class was classically defined, while the Karasek demand-control model was used to characterize job strain. The Karasek model describes two components of working life that influence job strain. The first is the psychological demands of the job and the second is a worker’s ability to use skills or authority to address those demands. Understanding this relationship can provide insight into the development of workplace disease prevention and wellness programs that target employees who are at increased risk for poor medication adherence as well as provide new insight to healthcare providers on the risk factors for poor adherence. Additionally, developing occupation-specific interventions to improve medication adherence may ultimately lead to a reduction in total healthcare spending.


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Details

Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Kearney, Shannon M.smk75@pitt.eduSMK75
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairPitt, Brucebrucep@pitt.eduBRUCEP
Thesis AdvisorPeterson, Jimjimmyp@pitt.eduJIMMYP
Committee MemberAldridge, Arnieaaldridge@rti.org
Committee MemberCastle, Nicholascastlen@pitt.eduCASTLEN
Committee MemberPearce, Lindalip10@pitt.eduLIP10
Committee MemberPringle, Janjlp127@pitt.eduJLP127
Date: 27 January 2016
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 4 September 2015
Approval Date: 27 January 2016
Submission Date: 14 September 2015
Access Restriction: 1 year -- Restrict access to University of Pittsburgh for a period of 1 year.
Number of Pages: 85
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Environmental and Occupational Health
Degree: DrPH - Doctor of Public Health
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: medication adherence; randomized controlled trial; job strain; occupational health; screening, brief intervention
Date Deposited: 27 Jan 2016 22:17
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2016 14:28
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/25265

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