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Novel Methods for the Prevention of Neurodegeneration around Neural Implants

Snyder, Noah/R (2016) Novel Methods for the Prevention of Neurodegeneration around Neural Implants. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.

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Abstract

The recent development of neural prosthetic technology has demonstrated a therapeutic potential for restoring lost sensory or motor functions via a brain-machine interface. Often the devices require direct contact between neural tissue and implanted electrodes to function properly by electrically stimulating or recording neurons on the scale of micro-volts. It is thus
critical that the interface between the tissue and the electrode is seamless as well as stable for
durations relevant to clinical applications. Unfortunately, the formation of an abiotic/biotic
interface is often riddled with host tissue responses that interfere with device function. Neuronal
loss due to insertion injury and chronic inflammation and exclusion of recordable cells by an
encapsulated glial sheath have all been implicated as potential sources for chronic neural
recording failure. Failure to establish a stable interface severely limits the function of implanted
neural devices.
In this work we rely upon interdisciplinary techniques in chemistry, biology, and physics
to develop methods for the formation of a healthy brain-machine interface as well as new tools
for the diagnostics of the tissue response. Through the creation of new biomaterials we have
improved the neural interface, reduced local neurodegeneration around chronic implants, and
demonstrated in vivo improvement of neural recording. In addition, novel conductive and
magnetic nanomaterials have been developed for electrochemically detecting reactive oxygen species associated with implant induced tissue damage as well as treatment strategies using on
demand drug release.
By establishing a method for the formation of healthy and stable interfaces between
neural tissue and electrode recording devices, the development of neural prosthetic devices can
continue to progress towards clinical acceptance.


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Details

Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Published
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Snyder, Noah/Rnrs43@pitt.eduNRS43
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairCui, Xinyan Tracyxic11@pitt.eduXIC11
Committee Membervazquez, albertoalv15@pitt.eduALV15
Committee Membermichael, adrianamichael@pitt.eduAMICHAEL
Committee Memberlagenaur, carllagenaur@pitt.eduLAGENAUR
Committee MemberSchwartz, Andrew Babs21@pitt.eduABS21
Date: 5 February 2016
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 16 November 2015
Approval Date: 5 February 2016
Submission Date: 3 December 2015
Access Restriction: 5 year -- Restrict access to University of Pittsburgh for a period of 5 years.
Number of Pages: 160
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Swanson School of Engineering > Bioengineering
Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: neural probe, superoxide, superoxide dismutase mimic
Date Deposited: 05 Feb 2017 06:00
Last Modified: 05 Feb 2017 06:00
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/26575

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