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The Use of Graphene and its Derivatives in Chemical and Biological Sensing

Morgan, Gregory J (2016) The Use of Graphene and its Derivatives in Chemical and Biological Sensing. Master's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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A chemical sensor is defined as a transducer comprised of, or coated with, a layer that responds
to changes in its local chemical environment. Chemical sensors convert various forms of energy
into a measurable signal. For instance, the chemical energy involved with bonds breaking or
forming can change the electronic properties of the transducer, creating an observable signal
such as an increase or decrease in electrical resistance. Chemical sensing is important in many
facets of research including environmental, bio-medical/pharmaceutical, industrial, automotive,
and human safety. For a sensor to be practical it must interact preferentially with the target
chemical analyte. A sensor should be precise, accurate, robust, cost efficient to manufacture, low
in power consumption, portable otherwise the sensor is undesirable. Another key value of
chemical sensors is it must exhibit rapid detection. Prior to portable sensors chemical analysis
was performed in a laboratory on large, expensive instruments, which is costly in time,
equipment fees, and personnel wages to operate. These sophisticated instruments are accurate
and precise, however, it is far more beneficial to have a miniature, on-site detection apparatus.
The first environmental, on-site sensor was used by the mining industry to monitor subterranean
air quality; the canary. Carbon monoxide and methane (colorless, odorless gases) are large
problems in the mining industry; smaller life forms are more susceptible to being poisoned by
toxic gases. Today sensor constructs are far different from that of a canary, however, they serve
the same purpose. Carbon nanomaterials such as graphene and single-walled carbon nanotubes
and other derivatives prove to be of great importance in sensor research due to their unique
electronic properties, and they’re high aspect ratio allowing them to be highly sensitive to small
perturbations in local electronic environments.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Morgan, Gregory Jgjm30@pitt.eduGJM30
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairStar, Alexanderastar@pitt.eduASTAR
Committee MemberMilstone, Jilljem210@pitt.eduJEM210
Committee MemberRosi, Natnrosi@pitt.eduNROSI
Date: 21 June 2016
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 29 October 2015
Approval Date: 21 June 2016
Submission Date: 16 March 2016
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Number of Pages: 56
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences > Chemistry
Degree: MS - Master of Science
Thesis Type: Master's Thesis
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: graphene, sensors, holey graphene, field-effect transistors, chemiresistors
Date Deposited: 21 Jun 2016 14:52
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2016 14:32


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