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Effect of Influenza vaccination on outcome of hospitalized adults: case control study

Ball, Taylor (2016) Effect of Influenza vaccination on outcome of hospitalized adults: case control study. Master's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

Background: Influenza is a respiratory illness caused by three different viruses: type A, B, or C. Influenza has a large impact on morbidity and mortality globally with an estimated attack rate at 5-10% in adults and 20-30% in children. The Influenza vaccine is the most effective way to prevent Influenza. The purpose of this epidemiologic study is to determine the efficacy of the Influenza vaccines administered between 2013 and 2015, and to address public misconceptions concerning the safety of the vaccine.
Methods: This case control study of adult patients took place at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Mercy Hospital. The study included 306 adult patients with respiratory illnesses who were admitted to the hospital during 2013-2015 Influenza seasons. Of these admitted patients, 206 tested positive for Influenza while the other 100 patients tested negative and therefore served as case controls. Data on each patient were collected via medical records, which included vaccination status, demographics such as gender, and outcomes such as length of stay. The data were statistically analyzed using SAS v 9.3 software.
Results: Among Influenza positive cases during the 2013-2014 Influenza season, 34.4% were vaccinated and 55.6% were between the ages 51 and 79. Among Influenza positive cases during the 2014-2015 season, 64.6% were vaccinated and 57% were between the ages 51 and 79. Among Influenza negative cases during both Influenza seasons, 66.7% were vaccinated and 56.3% were between the ages 51 and 79. Importantly, as a general finding, those patients who received Influenza vaccination prior to admission were significantly less likely to have Influenza (p = 0.0132). Patients who were vaccinated prior to admission were statistically significantly older (p = 0.0001) and had higher comorbidity scores (p = 0.0001).
Conclusions: Influenza vaccination significantly reduces the rate of Influenza positivity among inpatients. Patients who are older and have higher comorbidity scores are more likely to be vaccinated. The Influenza vaccine is significant to public health because it is cost effective and reduces hospitalizations and mortality due to Influenza. This information can be used to educate patients and health care workers about the Influenza vaccine and its benefits.


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Details

Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Ball, Taylortab127@pitt.eduTAB127
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Thesis AdvisorYassin, Mohamed H.yassinm@upmc.edu
Committee MemberMartinson, Jeremy Jjmartins@pitt.eduJMARTINS
Committee MemberMailliard, Robbie B.rbm19@pitt.eduRBM19
Date: 29 June 2016
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 8 April 2016
Approval Date: 29 June 2016
Submission Date: 30 March 2016
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Number of Pages: 44
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
Degree: MPH - Master of Public Health
Thesis Type: Master's Thesis
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Influenza vaccine
Date Deposited: 29 Jun 2016 19:40
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2016 14:32
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/27425

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