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The administration of intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine induces changes in the nasal microbiota and nasal epithelium gene expression profiles

Tarabichi, Y and Li, K and Hu, S and Nguyen, C and Wang, X and Elashoff, D and Saira, K and Frank, B and Bihan, M and Ghedin, E and Methé, BA and Deng, JC (2015) The administration of intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine induces changes in the nasal microbiota and nasal epithelium gene expression profiles. Microbiome, 3. 74 - ?.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Viral infections such as influenza have been shown to predispose hosts to increased colonization of the respiratory tract by pathogenic bacteria and secondary bacterial pneumonia. To examine how viral infections and host antiviral immune responses alter the upper respiratory microbiota, we analyzed nasal bacterial composition by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing in healthy adults at baseline and at 1 to 2 weeks and 4 to 6 weeks following instillation of live attenuated influenza vaccine or intranasal sterile saline. A subset of these samples was submitted for microarray host gene expression profiling.RESULTS: We found that live attenuated influenza vaccination led to significant changes in microbial community structure, diversity, and core taxonomic membership as well as increases in the relative abundances of Staphylococcus and Bacteroides genera (both p < 0.05). Hypergeometric testing for the enrichment of gene ontology terms in the vaccinated group reflected a robust up-regulation of type I and type II interferon-stimulated genes in the vaccinated group relative to controls. Translational murine studies showed that poly I:C administration did in fact permit greater nasal Staphylococcus aureus persistence, a response absent in interferon alpha/beta receptor deficient mice.CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our findings demonstrate that although the human nasal bacterial community is heterogeneous and typically individually robust, activation of a type I interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral response may foster the disproportionate emergence of potentially pathogenic species such as S. aureus.TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov on 11/3/15, NCT02597647 .


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Details

Item Type: Article
Status: Published
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Tarabichi, Y
Li, K
Hu, S
Nguyen, C
Wang, X
Elashoff, D
Saira, K
Frank, B
Bihan, M
Ghedin, Eelg21@pitt.eduELG21
Methé, BA
Deng, JC
Date: 15 December 2015
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: Microbiome
Volume: 3
Page Range: 74 - ?
DOI or Unique Handle: 10.1186/s40168-015-0133-2
Schools and Programs: School of Medicine > Computational and Systems Biology
Refereed: Yes
Date Deposited: 18 Aug 2016 19:50
Last Modified: 23 Jun 2018 11:56
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/28938

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