Link to the University of Pittsburgh Homepage
Link to the University Library System Homepage Link to the Contact Us Form

Air toxics and the risk of autism spectrum disorder: The results of a population based case-control study in southwestern Pennsylvania

Talbott, EO and Marshall, LP and Rager, JR and Arena, VC and Sharma, RK and Stacy, SL (2015) Air toxics and the risk of autism spectrum disorder: The results of a population based case-control study in southwestern Pennsylvania. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, 14 (1).

[img]
Preview
PDF
Published Version
Available under License : See the attached license file.

Download (985kB) | Preview
[img] Plain Text (licence)
Available under License : See the attached license file.

Download (1kB)

Abstract

© 2015 Talbott et al. Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) constitute a major public health problem affecting one in 68 children. There is little understanding of the causes of ASD despite its serious social impact. Air pollution contains many toxicants known to have adverse effects on the fetus. We conducted a population based case-control study in southwestern Pennsylvania to estimate the association between ASD and 2005 US EPA modeled NATA (National Air Toxics Assessment) levels for 30 neurotoxicants. Methods: A total of 217 ASD cases born between 2005 and 2009 were recruited from local ASD diagnostic and treatment centers. There were two different control groups: 1) interviewed controls (N∈=∈224) frequency matched by child's year of birth, sex and race with complete residential histories from prior to pregnancy through the child's second birthday, and 2) 5,007 controls generated from a random sample of birth certificates (BC controls) using residence at birth. We used logistic regression analysis comparing higher to first quartile of exposure to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for mother's age, education, race, smoking status, child's year of birth and sex. Results: Comparing fourth to first quartile exposures for all births, the adjusted OR for styrene was 2.04 (95 % CI∈=∈1.17-3.58, p∈=∈0.013) for the interviewed case-control analysis and 1.61 (95 % CI∈=∈1.08-2.40, p∈=∈0.018) for the BC analysis. In the BC comparison, chromium also exhibited an elevated OR of 1.60 (95 % CI∈=∈1.08-2.38, p∈=∈0.020), which was similarly elevated in the interviewed analysis (OR∈=∈1.52, 95 % CI∈=∈0.87-2.66). There were borderline significant ORs for the BC comparison for methylene chloride (OR∈=∈1.41, 95 % CI∈=∈0.96-2.07, p∈=∈0.082) and PAHs (OR∈=∈1.44, 95 % CI∈=∈0.98-2.11, p∈=∈0.064). Conclusions: Living in areas with higher levels of styrene and chromium during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of ASD, with borderline effects for PAHs and methylene chloride. These results are consistent with other studies. It is unclear, however, whether these chemicals are risk factors themselves or if they reflect the effect of a mixture of pollutants. Future work should include improved spatiotemporal estimates of exposure to air toxics, taking into account the dynamic movement of individuals during daily life.


Share

Citation/Export:
Social Networking:
Share |

Details

Item Type: Article
Status: Published
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Talbott, EOeot1@pitt.eduEOT1
Marshall, LP
Rager, JRjnrst8@pitt.eduJNRST8
Arena, VCarena@pitt.eduARENA0000-0002-1634-7207
Sharma, RKrks1946@pitt.eduRKS1946
Stacy, SLsls157@pitt.eduSLS157
Date: 6 October 2015
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source
Volume: 14
Number: 1
DOI or Unique Handle: 10.1186/s12940-015-0064-1
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Behavioral and Community Health Sciences
Graduate School of Public Health > Biostatistics
Graduate School of Public Health > Environmental and Occupational Health
Graduate School of Public Health > Epidemiology
Refereed: Yes
Date Deposited: 09 Aug 2016 20:05
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2019 15:55
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/29058

Metrics

Monthly Views for the past 3 years

Plum Analytics

Altmetric.com


Actions (login required)

View Item View Item