Link to the University of Pittsburgh Homepage
Link to the University Library System Homepage Link to the Contact Us Form

Spatial and temporal estimation of air pollutants in New York City: Exposure assignment for use in a birth outcomes study

Ross, Z and Ito, K and Johnson, S and Yee, M and Pezeshki, G and Clougherty, JE and Savitz, D and Matte, T (2013) Spatial and temporal estimation of air pollutants in New York City: Exposure assignment for use in a birth outcomes study. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, 12 (1).

Published Version
Available under License : See the attached license file.

Download (1MB) | Preview
[img] Plain Text (licence)
Available under License : See the attached license file.

Download (1kB)


Background: Recent epidemiological studies have examined the associations between air pollution and birth outcomes. Regulatory air quality monitors often used in these studies, however, were spatially sparse and unable to capture relevant within-city variation in exposure during pregnancy. Methods. This study developed two-week average exposure estimates for fine particles (PM 2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during pregnancy for 274,996 New York City births in 2008-2010. The two-week average exposures were constructed by first developing land use regression (LUR) models of spatial variation in annual average PM2.5 and NO2 data from 150 locations in the New York City Community Air Survey and emissions source data near monitors. The annual average concentrations from the spatial models were adjusted to account for city-wide temporal trends using time series derived from regulatory monitors. Models were developed using Year 1 data and validated using Year 2 data. Two-week average exposures were then estimated for three buffers of maternal address and were averaged into the last six weeks, the trimesters, and the entire period of gestation. We characterized temporal variation of exposure estimates, correlation between PM2.5 and NO2, and correlation of exposures across trimesters. Results: The LUR models of average annual concentrations explained a substantial amount of the spatial variation (R§ssup§2§esup§ = 0.79 for PM 2.5 and 0.80 for NO2). In the validation, predictions of Year 2 two-week average concentrations showed strong agreement with measured concentrations (R§ssup§2§esup§ = 0.83 for PM2.5 and 0.79 for NO2). PM2.5 exhibited greater temporal variation than NO2. The relative contribution of temporal vs. spatial variation in the estimated exposures varied by time window. The differing seasonal cycle of these pollutants (bi-annual for PM2.5 and annual for NO2) resulted in different patterns of correlations in the estimated exposures across trimesters. The three levels of spatial buffer did not make a substantive difference in estimated exposures. Conclusions: The combination of spatially resolved monitoring data, LUR models and temporal adjustment using regulatory monitoring data yielded exposure estimates for PM2.5 and NO2 that performed well in validation tests. The interaction between seasonality of air pollution and exposure intervals during pregnancy needs to be considered in future studies. © 2013 Ross et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Social Networking:
Share |


Item Type: Article
Status: Published
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Ross, Z
Ito, K
Johnson, S
Yee, M
Pezeshki, G
Clougherty, JEjcloughe@pitt.eduJCLOUGHE
Savitz, D
Matte, T
Date: 15 July 2013
Date Type: Publication
Journal or Publication Title: Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source
Volume: 12
Number: 1
DOI or Unique Handle: 10.1186/1476-069x-12-51
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Environmental and Occupational Health
Refereed: Yes
Date Deposited: 29 Sep 2016 19:59
Last Modified: 22 Jun 2021 12:55


Monthly Views for the past 3 years

Plum Analytics

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item