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HIV policy: a comparative study of Mozambique and the United States

Morsillo, TaylorDaphne (2017) HIV policy: a comparative study of Mozambique and the United States. Master's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

This thesis compares two countries’ policies regarding HIV/AIDS. The sub-Saharan country of Mozambique and the United States of America (U.S.) are two different countries. Each has diverse historical backgrounds and cultural influences that have created and shaped how HIV/AIDS policies are implemented. HIV/AIDS is a borderless public health issue that affects both developed and developing nations. In this thesis domestic policies of each country are compared to determine an appropriate policy response to HIV/AIDS.
The health policy structure of Mozambique stems directly from the national level and is disseminated to the provincial and district levels. This unified structure promotes a singular message about HIV/AIDS, the need for prevention efforts, scaled-up treatment and continued care of HIV-positive persons. However, due to the lack of subnational autonomy, there is little to no policy diversification for specific population groups. Additionally, infrastructure instabilities, gender related issues, educational inequalities and continued stigma surrounding HIV/AIDS affect the care and treatment of some sub-groups within the population.
At the federal level in United States, the Office of National AIDS Policy (ONAP) creates frameworks like the National HIV/AIDS Strategy. However, in order to be implemented and be effective, federal agencies, state, territorial, tribal and local governments must collaborate. This large space for interpretation of the policy by elected officials creates unique barriers to policy implementation. The devolved structure of health care in the United States allows each state to have a different policy approach to combatting the virus, while receiving differing amounts of federal funding.
Anyone can contract HIV, and while populations are affected by the disease in one way or another, some groups are more vulnerable than others. The sub-populations most at risk for HIV transmission are those most often stigmatized and discriminated against globally. In order to create positive future change it is necessary to modify viewpoints surrounding the virus.


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Details

Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Morsillo, TaylorDaphnetjm116@pitt.edutjm116
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Thesis AdvisorTerry, Marthamaterry@pitt.edu
Committee MemberNelson, Paulpjnelson@pitt.edu
Committee MemberDriessen, Juliadriessen@pitt.edu
Date: 24 February 2017
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 9 December 2016
Approval Date: 24 February 2017
Submission Date: 22 November 2016
Access Restriction: 1 year -- Restrict access to University of Pittsburgh for a period of 1 year.
Number of Pages: 59
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Behavioral and Community Health Sciences
Degree: MPH - Master of Public Health
Thesis Type: Master's Thesis
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: HIV, Policy, Mozambique, United States
Date Deposited: 24 Feb 2017 17:46
Last Modified: 01 Jan 2018 06:15
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/30353

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