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Relationship of sleep quality and duration and obesity in Afro-Caribbean men

Monaghan, Alyssa (2018) Relationship of sleep quality and duration and obesity in Afro-Caribbean men. Master Essay, University of Pittsburgh.

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Epidemiologic studies show an association between short sleep duration and poor sleep quality and general obesity. However, the association of sleep with body fat distribution and ectopic fat is not as clear. Ectopic fat depots are thought to be more reliable predictors for metabolic derangements and cardiovascular diseases than BMI. Among African ancestry populations, generalized obesity and other risk factors do not appear to explain the high burden of cardio-metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes; therefore, studies examining sleep patterns and adiposity are particularly needed in this population. To address this knowledge gap, we measured sleep duration and quality, as measured by hours of sleep and sleep efficiency, respectively, using SenseWear® Pro Armband actigraphy in 348 Afro-Caribbean men aged 50 and older (mean age=63, mean BMI=28). Anthropometric measures were taken in addition to ectopic adiposity, which generated data on visceral, liver, skeletal muscle, and pericardial fat. Our findings indicate that this population has, on average, a short sleep duration (mean sleep=5.26 hours) compared to other populations. After adjusting for age and lifestyle, there were no statistically significant differences in means among categories of sleep duration and adiposity. There was a trend toward a decreasing visceral (P=0.09) and skeletal muscle fat accumulation (P=0.07) with increasing hours of sleep. For the sleep quality analysis, a number of low magnitude but significant correlations existed between adiposity and sleep efficiency. The inverse correlations with sleep efficiency were observed for all tested obesity and adiposity phenotypes, suggesting that sleep efficiency may be an important component in lowering risk for both ectopic and overall adiposity. Our findings underscore the need for population-based prevention strategies aimed at increasing the duration and efficiency of sleep in this population. Thus, sleep patterns in this population should be further investigated in a larger sample of African ancestry individuals. Further studies are also needed to address the relationship between sleep and cardiometabolic health in this population and the direction of causality. A better understanding of this relationship can provide necessary insights that can be used to tailor interventions for this population; thus having a global public health significance.


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Item Type: Other Thesis, Dissertation, or Long Paper (Master Essay)
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Monaghan, Alyssaalm354@pitt.edualm354
ContributionContributors NameEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairMiljkovic, Ivamiljkovici@edc.pitt.eduUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Committee MemberAdibi, Jennifer, J.adibij@pitt.eduUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Committee MemberKline, Christopher, E.chriskline@pitt.eduUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date: 27 April 2018
Date Type: Submission
Number of Pages: 50
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: School of Public Health > Epidemiology
Degree: MPH - Master of Public Health
Thesis Type: Master Essay
Refereed: Yes
Date Deposited: 31 May 2019 23:46
Last Modified: 01 May 2021 05:15


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