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Cross Cultural Adaptation of the Functional Mobility Assessment (FMA) and Functional Mobility Assessment - Family Centered (FMA-FC) to Latin American Spanish

Arredondo, Jaime/M (2018) Cross Cultural Adaptation of the Functional Mobility Assessment (FMA) and Functional Mobility Assessment - Family Centered (FMA-FC) to Latin American Spanish. Master's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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In response to an increasing population of Latin Americans and the lack of outcomes tools for mobility in Spanish, a cross-cultural adaptation (CCA) of the Functional Mobility Assessment (FMA) and the Functional Mobility Assessment - Family Centered (FMA-FC) outcome measurement tools to Latin American Spanish was conducted. These outcome measurement tools are patient reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires that quantify the impact of Mobility Assistive Equipment (MAE) in the functional level of the client during Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). After an extensive review of various CCA guidelines, a combination of the guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) was used to adapt these two tools for use throughout Latin America, North America, and the Caribbean. Unlike a simple translation, a CCA focuses on maintaining cultural and conceptual equivalences, rather than linguistic equivalence; ensuring that the adapted tools function equally as well as the originals. For this study, two different independent translators created separate versions of a forward translation. These versions were then merged (synthesised) and a review panel comprised of seating and mobility experts from across Latin America reviewed the synthesised translations. With the review panel's feedback, the lead translator created a preliminary forward translation which was then back-translated by an independent translator for review by the authors of the original tools. After getting the authors' approval, these tools were pre-tested with subjects representative of the target population. Further work is still required to validate these adaptations and obtain their psychometric properties; however, positive results have been obtained by the CCA process. The FMA and FMA-FC Spanish versions were found to be culturally, conceptually, semantically, and idiomatically equivalent as the original versions; thus, validating their use in the field of rehabilitation.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Arredondo, Jaime/Mjma121@pitt.edujma1210000-0002-5693-6241
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairSchmeler, Mark /
Committee MemberSchein,
Committee MemberDicianno, Brad /
Committee MemberTurzy,
Date: 25 May 2018
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 23 March 2018
Approval Date: 25 May 2018
Submission Date: 6 April 2018
Access Restriction: 1 year -- Restrict access to University of Pittsburgh for a period of 1 year.
Number of Pages: 59
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences > Rehabilitation Science and Technology
Degree: MS - Master of Science
Thesis Type: Master's Thesis
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Functional Mobility Assessment; Functional Mobility Assessment - Family Centered; Outcome Measurement Translation, Cross Cultural Adaptation; Outcome Translation
Date Deposited: 25 May 2018 13:27
Last Modified: 25 May 2019 05:15

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