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Rakshit, Joydeep (2018) EFFICIENT SECURITY IN EMERGING MEMORIES. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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The wide adoption of cloud computing has established integrity and confidentiality of data in memory as a first order design concern in modern computing systems. Data integrity is ensured by Merkle Tree (MT) memory authentication. However, in the context of emerging non-volatile memories (NVMs), the MT memory authentication related increase in cell writes and memory accesses impose significant energy, lifetime, and performance overheads. This dissertation presents ASSURE, an Authentication Scheme for SecURE (ASSURE) energy efficient NVMs. ASSURE integrates (i) smart message authentication codes with (ii) multi-root MTs to decrease MT reads and writes, while also reducing the number of cell writes on each MT write.

Whereas data confidentiality is effectively ensured by encryption, the memory access patterns can be exploited as a side-channel to obtain confidential data. Oblivious RAM (ORAM) is a secure cryptographic construct that effectively thwarts access-pattern-based attacks. However, in Path ORAM (state-of-the-art efficient ORAM for main memories) and its variants, each last-level cache miss (read or write) is transformed to a sequence of memory reads and writes (collectively termed read phase and write phase, respectively), increasing the number of memory writes due to data re-encryption, increasing effective latency of the memory accesses, and degrading system performance. This dissertation efficiently addresses the challenges of both read and write phase operations during an ORAM access. First, it presents ReadPRO (Read Promotion), which is an efficient ORAM scheduler that leverages runtime identification of read accesses to effectively prioritize the service of critical-path-bound read access read phase operations, while preserving all data dependencies. Second, it presents LEO (Low overhead Encryption ORAM) that reduces cell writes by opportunistically decreasing the number of block encryptions, while preserving the security guarantees of the baseline Path ORAM. This dissertation therefore addresses the core chal- lenges of read/write energy and latency, endurance, and system performance for integration of essential security primitives in emerging memory architectures.

Future research directions will focus on (i) exploring efficient solutions for ORAM read phase optimization and secure ORAM resizing, (ii) investigating the security challenges of emerging processing-in-memory architectures, and (iii) investigating the interplay of security primitives with reliability enhancing architectures.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Rakshit, Joydeepjoydeep.rakshit@pitt.edujor730000-0002-3670-4814
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairMohanram,
Committee MemberYang,
Committee MemberChen,
Committee MemberSejdic,
Committee MemberChilders,
Committee MemberLi, Hai "Helen"
Date: 25 September 2018
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 11 June 2018
Approval Date: 25 September 2018
Submission Date: 27 June 2018
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Number of Pages: 92
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Swanson School of Engineering > Electrical and Computer Engineering
Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Main Memory, Memory Security, Oblivious RAM, Encryption, Authentication, Merkle Tree
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 25 Sep 2018 15:49
Last Modified: 25 Sep 2018 15:49


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