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Diagnostic methods used for pediatric TB in sub-Saharan Africa: a literature review

Rafalko, Nicole (2018) Diagnostic methods used for pediatric TB in sub-Saharan Africa: a literature review. Master Essay, University of Pittsburgh.

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Abstract

The purpose of this review is to investigate the gap in pediatric TB diagnosis and reporting, and identify interventions that have been found to be effective in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2017, one million children became infected with TB and 230,000 of these children died. With early diagnosis, child mortality resulting from TB infection can be prevented. TB manifests differently in children; thus, most conventional diagnostic tools fail. In Sub-Saharan Africa alone, it is estimated that 20% of all active TB cases are in children. Since childhood TB is a major public health issue, there is a dire need for better diagnostics and reporting systems. Moreover, TB is the leading cause of death in HIV positive individuals making it important to discuss HIV status and other comorbidities affecting diagnosis and reporting of pediatric TB. BCG vaccination can also interfere with TB diagnosis and high BCG vaccination rates make accurate diagnosis difficult due to cross reactivity with some diagnostic methods. Many children in high TB endemic areas like Sub-Saharan Africa suffer from severe acute malnutrition which complicates early diagnosis in children. For the purpose of this review, HIV positive individuals and malnutrition status will be included in the analysis as well as BCG vaccination rates because all pose challenges to diagnosing childhood TB in Sub-Saharan Africa.


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Details

Item Type: Other Thesis, Dissertation, or Long Paper (Master Essay)
Status: Unpublished
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Rafalko, Nicolenir48@pitt.edunir48
Contributors:
ContributionContributors NameEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairMattila, Joshuajmattila@pitt.eduUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Committee MemberRussell, Joannejoanner@pitt.eduUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date: 12 December 2018
Date Type: Submission
Number of Pages: 47
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
Degree: MPH - Master of Public Health
Thesis Type: Master Essay
Refereed: Yes
Date Deposited: 28 Sep 2019 22:59
Last Modified: 28 Sep 2019 22:59
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/35595

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