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Sex Differences in the Symptom Presentation and Perceptions of Impaired Sleep

Morris, Jonna (2018) Sex Differences in the Symptom Presentation and Perceptions of Impaired Sleep. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Introduction: It is unclear from previous research if women physically experience or only perceive and report different symptoms of impaired sleep that result from serious sleep disorders such as Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). To prevent a missed diagnosis, it is imperative that we clarify and expand upon the different symptomology and perceptions of impaired sleep reported by both women and men.
Objective: To gain insight into sex and gender differences in the perceptions and symptom presentations of impaired sleep and its next-day outcomes.
Methods: Three aims were proposed that would advance insight into the different possible perceptions and symptom presentations that men and women with type 2 diabetes have when coping with impaired sleep. Aim 1, a qualitative analysis, used semi-structured interviews to explore differing patterns of perceptions and symptom presentations of impaired sleep between men and women. Aim 2, examined the codes and categories from the qualitative interviews and compared them to commonly used instruments in sleep research. Aim 3. a quantitative analysis of secondary data examined the physiological measurement of OSA severity, and its influence on sleep quality, mood, excessive daytime sleepiness, and daytime function and moderation by sex.
Results: Aim 1. While both men and women were tired during the day, women provided rich descriptions of an omnipresent fatigue or sleepiness that affected their motivation and energy to get things done and men provided examples of fatigue or sleepiness at specific times of the day that they were determined to not let affect them. Aim 2. When the sleep instruments were compared to the codes and categories in aim 1, it was found that they did not capture the differing coping styles of men and women who are fatigued or sleepy during the day. Aim 3. In adjusted models, OSA severity was not predictive of the subjective sleep outcomes and no effect by sex.
Conclusion: We concluded that there were differences by sex in the perceptions and symptom presentations of impaired sleep and its next-day outcomes likely due to the influence of gender and which sleep instruments are not sensitive to. AHI does not explain subjective sleep outcomes in men or women.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Morris, Jonnajlm356@pitt.edujlm3560000-0002-4150-9407
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairChasens, Eileen R.chasense@pitt.edu0000-0002-7233-1269
Committee CoChairLingler, Jennifer
Committee MemberSereika, Susan M.ssereika@pitt.edu0000-0002-7840-1352
Committee MemberLuyster, Faithfsl3@pitt.edu0000-0001-5130-8839
Committee MemberHelgeson, Vickivh2e@andrew.cmu.edu0000-0002-2099-4714
Date: 21 December 2018
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 28 August 2018
Approval Date: 21 December 2018
Submission Date: 10 December 2018
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Number of Pages: 136
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: School of Nursing > Nursing
Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Gender roles, sex differences, qualitative methods, quantitative methods, instrumentation
Date Deposited: 21 Dec 2018 14:29
Last Modified: 21 Dec 2018 14:29


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