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Cortical Bone Health in African Ancestry Men

Jonnalagadda, Pallavi (2019) Cortical Bone Health in African Ancestry Men. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

As the population ages, more non-white men will develop osteoporosis and its associated fractures, yet little is known about skeletal aging in African ancestry men. Studies using quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-measured Bone Mineral Density (BMD) have exposed the incomplete nature of the current understanding of age-related bone loss. Furthermore, studies of the relationship between body fat and BMD have challenged the traditional paradigm that adiposity is beneficial for skeletal health. Moreover, even though cortical bone constitutes 80% of the skeleton, its epidemiology has rarely been described.
To address these knowledge gaps, this dissertation examined the rates of change and correlates for cortical thickness, periosteal and endosteal circumferences, and torsional bone strength (SSI) at the radius and tibia in middle-aged and older African ancestry men from the Tobago Bone Health Study over an average follow-up period of 6.2 years. Secondly, inflammation markers — high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (IL6) — were examined in relation to rates of change in cortical bone measures in both limbs. Lastly, total calf adipose tissue area (TAT) and its components, percentage subcutaneous (%SAT) and non-subcutaneous fat (%NSAT), were assessed in relation to changes in cortical bone measures at the tibia.
The main findings were: endosteal expansion outpaced periosteal bone formation, such that there was net cortical thinning and reductions in SSI in both limbs. HsCRP was not associated with rates of change in cortical bone measures, while higher baseline serum IL6 was significantly associated with slower rates of loss of cortical BMD and SSI at both limbs. Higher calf TAT was associated with higher rates of cortical BMD loss at the tibia. Higher %SAT and % NSAT were associated with lower and higher rates of cortical BMD loss respectively Higher %SAT was also associated with significantly greater rates of periosteal expansion.
These findings have public health significance due to their focus on an under-studied population, detailed description of changes and correlates of cortical bone structure, particularly periosteal circumference, which is a promising therapeutic target for osteoporosis. Moreover, the relationship between adiposity and skeletal health is especially timely considering the alarming rates of obesity worldwide.


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Details

Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Jonnalagadda, Pallavipaj23@pitt.edupaj23
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairZmuda, Josephzmudaj@edc.pitt.eduzmudaj
Committee MemberChang, Chung-Chouchangj@pitt.educhangj
Committee MemberKuipers, Allisonkuipersa@edc.pitt.edukuipersa
Committee MemberMiljkovic, Ivamiljkovici@edc.pitt.edumiljkovici
Date: 30 January 2019
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 7 December 2018
Approval Date: 30 January 2019
Submission Date: 13 December 2018
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Number of Pages: 174
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Epidemiology
Degree: DrPH - Doctor of Public Health
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: African ancestry, osteoporosis,cortical bone, aging, computed tomography, strength strain index, inflammation, interleukin, hsCRP
Date Deposited: 30 Jan 2019 19:01
Last Modified: 13 Feb 2019 16:04
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/35774

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