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XIA, XIAOYAN (2019) EXAMINING NEGATIVE WORDING EFFECT IN A SELF-REPORT MEASURE. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Researchers often include both positively and negatively worded items in one survey to reduce acquiescence bias. The incorporation of negatively worded items can raise concerns for the internal-consistency coefficients, the validity evidence for criterion relationships and the internal structure of the measure. This study aims to investigate the impact of misspecifying the model when using negatively worded items. Simulated datasets were generated from three models, 1) CFA with two correlated factors, 2) bi-factor CFA with two specific factors for positive and negative wording effects, and 3) bi-factor CFA with one specific factor for negative wording effect, and compared with each other and the unidimensional model. Models were compared with respect to model fit, and their estimation of internal-consistency coefficients, criterion-related validity coefficients, and the internal structure validity.
Approximate and comparative model fit indices were not informative for model comparison because they presented similar fit among the three multidimensional models, although they tended to correctly identify the misfit of the unidimensional model under some conditions. Misspecifying the model for the negative wording effect resulted in biased estimates of internal-consistency coefficients. For the data generation bi-factor model with two specific factors, the under-fitting bi-factor model with the negative wording effect overestimated the homogeneity coefficient. When there were positive and negative wording effects, omitting one or both specific factors resulted in underestimated criterion-related validity coefficients and biased factor loadings. However, over-fitting with an additional specific factor did not impact the estimation of criterion-related validity coefficients or factor loadings of the general factor and the other specific factor.
Results suggest that model fit indices provide limited information for selecting models for negatively worded items. Evaluation of internal consistency reliability, criterion-related validity, and internal structure validity is recommended when selecting an approach for modeling negatively worded items. Researchers still need to rely on substantive and conceptual grounds when examining the nature of negatively worded items.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
XIA, XIAOYANXIX31@PITT.EDUXIX310000-0003-3502-2085
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairYe, Feifeifeifeiye@pitt.edufeifeiye
Committee CoChairLane, Suzannesl@pitt.edusl
Committee MemberStone, Clementcas@pitt.educas
Committee MemberYu, Lanlan.yu@pitt.edulan.yu
Date: 30 January 2019
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 29 November 2018
Approval Date: 30 January 2019
Submission Date: 30 January 2019
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Number of Pages: 129
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: School of Education > Psychology in Education
Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1) negative wording effect, 2) bi-factor models, 3) model fit, 4) internal consistency coefficient, 5) validity evidence for criterion relationships, 6) internal structure
Additional Information: the current uploaded copy is my final dissertation sent to Education Graduation for format reviewing to be considered as December graduation; this needs to be replaced.
Date Deposited: 30 Jan 2019 22:58
Last Modified: 30 Jan 2019 22:58


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