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Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) - Personality Studies

Pilkonis, Paul (2019) Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) - Personality Studies. [Dataset] (Unpublished)

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This submission contains data and codebooks from several personality studies conducted 1990-2017, organized by assessment instrument. For demographic information about the study participants, please refer to Background Information Questionnaire (BIQ) - Personality Studies (


1. Interpersonal Functioning in Borderline Personality ("Interpersonal Functioning")

Description: (From Clark et al, 1993): The SNAP is a 375-item self-report inventory, with a true-false format, that assesses 15 traits relevant to personality disorder: 12 primary or lower order dimensions—Mistrust, Manipulativeness, Aggression, Self-harm, Eccentric Perceptions, Dependency, Exhibitionism, Entitlement, Detachment, Impulsivity, Propriety, and Workaholism—were developed first; 3 temperament dimensions—Negative Temperament, Positive Temperament, and Disinhibition (vs. Constraint)—were added later to assess the core of the three higher order factors underlying the primary scales.

Data Notes: SNAP scales were created that can be mapped to NEO scales: antagonism, emotional instability, extraversion, and constraint. (Stepp, et. al, 2012)
Reliability: (From Clark et al, 1993): The resulting scales are internally consistent (median alpha reliabilities ranged from .76 to .85.

(From Stepp et al, 2012) Internal consistencies ranged from .88 to .95 for the four SNAP scales created to map onto the NEO and TCI.

Clark, L.A., Simms, L.J., Wu, K.D., & Casillas, A. (2003). Manual for the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP–2). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Clark, L.A., McEwen, J.L., Collard, L., & Hickok, L.G. (1993). Symptoms and traits of personality disorder: Two new methods for their assessment. Psychological Assessment, 5, 81–91.

Clark, L.A., & Watson, D. (1999). Temperament: A new paradigm for trait psychology. In L. Pervin & O. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality. Theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 399–423). New York: Guilford Press.

Stepp, S.D., Yu, L., Miller, J.D., Hallquist, M.N., Trull, T.J. & Pilkonis, P.A. (2012). Integrating competing dimensional models of personality: Linking the SNAP, TCI, and NEO using item response theory. Personality Disorders, 3(2), 107-126.


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Item Type: Dataset
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Pilkonis, Paulpap1@pitt.edupap10000-0003-1075-0617
Date: 17 January 2019
Schools and Programs: School of Medicine > Psychiatry
Related URLs:
Funders: NIMH
Type of Data: Database
Copyright Holders: None
Date Deposited: 28 Jan 2019 16:29
Last Modified: 28 Jan 2019 16:29


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