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Impact of Age and Obesity on Anthropometry

Merrill, Zachary (2019) Impact of Age and Obesity on Anthropometry. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Current anthropometric models do not account for the variations of age, obesity, and individual body shape within the American working population. The goals of this dissertation are to determine the associations of age and body mass index (BMI) with commonly used anthropometric parameters, develop predictive regression models to accurately determine these parameters in individuals, and develop predictive regressions for body fat in adults. A data set of 280 working adults was collected, consisting of 88 skinfold and anthropometric measurements, along with a full body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Body segment parameters (BSPs) including segment mass, center of mass, and radius of gyration, along with body composition, were determined from the analyses of these DXA scans.
Several significant effects of age, BMI, and individual body shape were found on body composition and the BSPs of interest. Specifically, the results showed significant changes in the center of mass and radius of gyration in large segments including the torso and thigh, with increasing age and obesity. When including individual body measurements to make predictive BSP models, the parameters of interest could be predicted with less than 5% root mean square error, and all of the predictions were more accurate than established anthropometric data sets, which had average errors of up to 60%. The body fat predictions improved upon previous statistical models by including age and BMI along with several skinfold and anthropometric measures. Body fat percentage was predicted with average errors of less than 10%, while established models result in errors of up to 33%.
In order to determine the importance of including representative BSP sets, static lifting and dynamic slipping sensitivity analyses were performed using various age, BMI, and anthropometric inputs. The static lifting task demonstrated variations of up to 12% in calculated L5/S1 compression force, based on the age and BMI inputs used, while the slipping task showed variations in hip joint forces and moments of up to 22% between individuals, highlighting the need for representative segment parameters.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Merrill, Zacharyzfm1@pitt.eduzfm1
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairCham, RakiƩrcham@pitt.edurcham
Committee MemberRedfern, Markmredfern@pitt.edumredfern
Committee MemberChambers, Aprilajcst49@pitt.eduajcst49
Committee MemberPerera, Subashanksp9@pitt.eduksp9
Date: 18 June 2019
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 18 March 2019
Approval Date: 18 June 2019
Submission Date: 18 March 2019
Access Restriction: 5 year -- Restrict access to University of Pittsburgh for a period of 5 years.
Number of Pages: 114
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Swanson School of Engineering > Bioengineering
Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: anthropometry, aging, obesity, biomechanics
Date Deposited: 18 Jun 2019 19:44
Last Modified: 18 Jun 2024 05:15

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