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Assessing the ASL and ASL-Stroop versions of the Computerized Revised Token Test with children

Lacey, Cecilia (2019) Assessing the ASL and ASL-Stroop versions of the Computerized Revised Token Test with children. Undergraduate Thesis, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Background: Hearing loss is a risk factor for delayed and disordered communication development. For children who use American Sign Language (ASL) as their primary mode of communication, evaluations in written English may not accurately reflect their true language abilities. The ASL and ASL-Stoop versions of the Computerized Revised Token Test (CRTT) have been developed and studied in adult Deaf and hearing ASL signers but not in children. In this preliminary study, a small group of Deaf and normally hearing children were administered language-appropriate versions of the CRTT to determine if school-aged children are capable of completing the test.
Procedures: Three Deaf children proficient in both written English and ASL, and five typically developing hearing children proficient in oral and written English completed the CRTT English Reading Word Fade (CRTT-R-WF) and English Reading Word Fade Stroop (CRTT-R- STROOP) versions of the test. The Deaf children also completed the ASL version of the CRTT (CRTT-ASL), ASL Stroop version of the CRTT (CRTT-ASL-STROOP), and ASL Reading Self-Paced version of the CRTT (CRTT-R-ASL). In addition, the hearing children completed the Listening CRTT (CRTT-L) but no ASL versions.
Results: The Deaf and hearing children scored below adult levels on the CRTT-ASL, CRTT-L and CRTT-R-WF. Despite the limited number of children assessed, it appeared that the language development histories of the Deaf children related to their performance on the CRTT-ASL and CRTT-R-WF. On the Stroop versions, a Stroop interference effect was demonstrated by all children on the English reading version, however, the Stroop effect was less pronounced on the CRTT-ASL-STROOP.
Conclusions: The Deaf and hearing school-aged children in this study were capable of completing the targeted CRTT test versions. Potential differences were observed, but in most cases the pattern of performance was comparable to previous data obtained from adult populations. Age of language acquisition also appeared to affect these Deaf children’s performance on these language-processing tasks.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairPratt,
Committee MemberMcNeil,
Committee MemberDuff,
Committee MemberMauk,
Committee MemberChilton,
Date: 23 April 2019
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 11 April 2019
Approval Date: 23 April 2019
Submission Date: 18 April 2019
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Number of Pages: 81
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences > Communication Science and Disorders
David C. Frederick Honors College
Degree: BPhil - Bachelor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Undergraduate Thesis
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Deaf, American Sign Language, CRTT
Date Deposited: 23 Apr 2019 20:06
Last Modified: 23 Apr 2019 20:06


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