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Title Page “L’art n’a pas de patrie?” Musical Production and Resistance in Nazi-Occupied Paris, 1940-1944

Cleary, Julie (2020) Title Page “L’art n’a pas de patrie?” Musical Production and Resistance in Nazi-Occupied Paris, 1940-1944. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Scholarship from various fields including history, Vichy studies, sociology, and musicology have dissected myths surrounding the Occupation of France (1940-1944), which fall into two generalities of total collaboration or total resistance. The reality lies in the middle, in which many individuals participated in resistance or collaboration in a variety of degrees. I argue that composing, performing, and listening to music are substantial resistant acts, using the resistance movements in Occupied Paris as a case study. This study has two overarching goals. The first is to examine music for resistance, or how music is used tactically to turn public opinion towards and to mobilize citizens for the French Résistance. The second is to study music as resistance, in which music frames the experiences of composers, performers, and audiences to understand life under oppressive regimes and imagine possibilities outside of its terror. Through music, the figures in this study maintain a sense of agency by meeting the abject horror of the Nazi agenda on their terms.
Utilizing James C. Scott’s theory of public and hidden transcripts as mediated by Michel Foucault’s analysis of power/knowledge formation, this dissertation analyzes the various ways in which resistance organizations and its members employ music to subvert and resist totalitarian regimes. Chapters 1 and 2 centers on the radio as a tool of the resistance and how listening is a resistance tactic. Chapter 3 analyzes how the Front national des musiciens uses the performance and composition of music as a resistance force, as expressed in its underground newspaper Musicien d’aujourd’hui. Finally, Chapter 4 follows the lived experience of Elsa Barraine, a woman Jewish composer active in the resistance who understood Occupation through her engagement with her passion for music. Through this study, I produce a clearer understanding of how resistance groups during the Occupation of France utilized music as a real tactic for mobilization and resistance. I argue that resistance itself is a refusal to be subsumed by another, one that the individuals highlighted in this project risked both their careers and their lives to uphold.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Cleary, Juliejav76@pitt.edujav760000-0002-7366-767X
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairCassaro,
Committee MemberRoot,
Committee MemberBloechl,
Committee MemberHeller,
Committee MemberBrush,
Date: 16 January 2020
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 22 April 2019
Approval Date: 16 January 2020
Submission Date: 7 November 2019
Access Restriction: No restriction; Release the ETD for access worldwide immediately.
Number of Pages: 202
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences > Music
Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: music; resistance; world war ii; front national des musicians; bbc; twentieth century; elsa barraine; pierre schaeffer; anna marley; france; paris; occupation; occupation of france
Date Deposited: 16 Jan 2020 17:38
Last Modified: 16 Jan 2020 17:38


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