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Compendium of medical cannabis policy in the US and literature review of prenatal cannabis use and its association with adverse neonatal outcomes

Meinhardt, Alexa (2019) Compendium of medical cannabis policy in the US and literature review of prenatal cannabis use and its association with adverse neonatal outcomes. Master Essay, University of Pittsburgh.

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Abstract

Cannabis, also known as marijuana, is derived from the plant Cannabis sativa and has a longstanding history globally and in the United States. Its use has been documented for medical, spiritual, and recreational purposes. Cannabis is classified by the government as a Schedule I substance; however, within the past two decades, several states have passed legislation for medical and/or recreational programs, as this is allowable under federal law. Results from national surveys suggest an increase in the prevalence of cannabis use as well as changes in the perception of risk associated with its use. Prenatal cannabis use has been linked to adverse neonatal outcomes. Given evolving policies and changes in the prevalence of use, it is important to understand and synthesize the existing body of literature on prenatal cannabis use and its association with birth outcomes. A PubMed literature search performed in September 2019 yielded 21 articles on the prevalence of prenatal cannabis use and/or the association between prenatal cannabis use and birth outcomes for full-text review. Estimates of the prevalence of prenatal cannabis use ranged from less than one percent to approximately thirty percent in various prenatal populations across the United States and at different points in time. Adverse neonatal outcomes associated with cannabis use included decreased birthweight and decreased head circumference, though nine studies observed null findings or a positive association between cannabis use and birth outcomes (prenatal use was associated with improved outcomes). Ten studies found a negative association between prenatal use and neonatal outcomes (use was associated with detrimental outcomes). Studies reviewed utilized multiple methods of cannabis detection (self-report, urine drug screen, hair sample), and several studies assessed prenatal cannabis use prospectively and/or longitudinally. However, eight studies only assessed cannabis use at the time of delivery and did not collect extensive information about the quantity, duration, and frequency of prenatal use. Given the inconsistency in and range of findings for both the prevalence of prenatal cannabis use and adverse birth outcomes, it is of public health importance to continue to investigate cannabis use among pregnant women, especially in the context of legislation which favors cannabis’ legalization.


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Details

Item Type: Other Thesis, Dissertation, or Long Paper (Master Essay)
Status: Unpublished
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Meinhardt, Alexaajm301@pitt.eduajm301
Contributors:
ContributionContributors NameEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairGlynn, Nancy W.glynnn@edc.pitt.eduUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Committee MemberJarlenski, Marian P.marian.jarlenski@pitt.eduUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Committee MemberDe Genna, Natacha M.degennanm@upmc.eduUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Committee MemberHyland, Paul R.paul.hyland@delaware.govUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date: 11 December 2019
Date Type: Submission
Number of Pages: 83
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Epidemiology
Degree: MPH - Master of Public Health
Thesis Type: Master Essay
Refereed: Yes
Date Deposited: 20 Aug 2020 17:48
Last Modified: 20 Aug 2020 17:48
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/38005

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