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Infection prevention and control practices as reported by registered nurses and nurse midwives in 13 government hospitals in Cambodia

Minahan, Chloe (2020) Infection prevention and control practices as reported by registered nurses and nurse midwives in 13 government hospitals in Cambodia. Undergraduate Thesis, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Background: Although infectious diseases are becoming less of a threat to health in low and middle income countries, infection prevention and control (IPC) programs that include quality assurance monitoring continue to be needed to improve care in middle income countries such as Cambodia.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report nurses’ and midwives’ perceptions of regarding the implementation and use of IPC guidelines provided by the Ministry of Health in Cambodia and whether there are differences based on the type of hospital (CPA-1 [hospital with minimal services], CPA-2 [emergency department available with some surgical services], CPA-3 [emergency department, surgical services and specialty services], and national).
Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study used a Center for Disease Control infection control instrument adapted for use in Cambodian hospitals that was translated using a translation and back-translation process described by the World Health Organization. The sample consisted of 275 respondents including 174 (63.3%) nurses and 99 (36.0%) midwives from either one CPA-1 hospital (n=10, 3.6%), 6 CPA-2 hospitals (n=76, 27.6%), 4 CPA-3 hospitals (n=132, 48.0%) and 2 national hospitals (n=57, 20.7%). Aspects of infection control programs measured included fiscal and human resources for IPC, hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, care of the patient with a urinary catheter, prevention of surgical site infection and environmental cleaning. Responses by hospital type were compared using the Chi-Square test of independence or the Fisher’s Exact Test.
Results: Nurses and midwives in the CPA-1 hospitals reported less fiscal and human support (20%) for maintaining an IPC program when compared to other classifications of hospitals (75% for CPA-2, 87% for CPA-3, and 82% for national) (p< 0.05). Differences by hospital type were also present for aspects of IPC including hand hygiene, personal protective equipment and environmental cleaning.
Conclusions: IPC is improving considerably in Cambodian hospitals, but more resources need to be allocated to the CPA-1 and CPA-2 hospitals that provide basic levels of care in the more rural areas of Cambodia.


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Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Thesis AdvisorHenker, Richardrhe001@pitt.eduRHE001
Committee MemberSereika, Susan
Committee MemberKoy,
Date: 4 May 2020
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 31 March 2020
Approval Date: 4 May 2020
Submission Date: 17 April 2020
Access Restriction: 2 year -- Restrict access to University of Pittsburgh for a period of 2 years.
Number of Pages: 38
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: School of Nursing > Nursing
David C. Frederick Honors College
Degree: BSN - Bachelor of Science in Nursing
Thesis Type: Undergraduate Thesis
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Evidence-Based Practice, Hand Hygiene, Infection Control, Infection Prevention, Policy
Date Deposited: 04 May 2020 15:19
Last Modified: 05 May 2020 17:02


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