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Quantifying Timing and Rate of Deformation and Exhumation in the Central Andes: Insights from Thermokinematic and Landscape Models of Balanced Cross-Sections

Parks, Victoria Marcelyn Buford (2021) Quantifying Timing and Rate of Deformation and Exhumation in the Central Andes: Insights from Thermokinematic and Landscape Models of Balanced Cross-Sections. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

In the central Andes, we couple detailed, sequentially deformed, forward modelled, balanced cross-sections, including flexural isostasy and erosion, with advection-diffusion thermal models (Pecube) and a physics-based surfaces processes model (CASCADE) in order to provide insight on the structural and morphological history evolution. Preserved basin histories in the Altiplano, along with geologic mapping and thermochronology sampling, assist in constraining the location and timing of exhumation, topographic development, and the geometry of active faulting. Thin-skinned surface exposures of Paleozoic folded and faulted rocks are balanced at depth by long basement thrust sheets. These basement thrust sheets, and their associated ramps, are the first-order control on cooling age patterns in the central Andes, as shown through our Pecube modelling. Incision level also has an important impact on the suite of thermal ages measured, and our new methodology allows us to synchronously track and thermally model interfluve and canyon elevations. We additionally use our sequentially deformed cross-section as the kinematic input to landscape evolution models, which apply realistic hillslope and fluvial erosion based on a suite of erosional and climatic patterns to produce a landscape based on the cross-section geometry and kinematics. Extracting geomorphic indices of uplift (eg river channel steepness, Ksn) from the modeled topography and comparing the modelled to modern-day, remotely acquired, Ksn, we are able to link these surface uplift indicators with subsurface geometry that can reproduce those metrics. We can trace the regional Ksn pattern to gain insight into the regional subsurface geometry and thus better locate active, or recently active, faults in the region along strike. The combination of traditional structural techniques, such as kinematically and flexurally sequentially modelled balanced cross-sections, and newer techniques of thermal and landscape modelling allow us to investigate the geomorphic response of viable thermo-kinematic models and derive potential regional variations in and along strike subsurface geometry and kinematics.


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Details

Item Type: University of Pittsburgh ETD
Status: Unpublished
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Parks, Victoria Marcelyn Bufordvmb21@pitt.eduvmb210000-0002-1737-0775
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairMcQuarrie, Nadinenmcq@pitt.edu0000-0001-6529-778X
Committee MemberStewart, Brianbstewart@pitt.edu
Committee MemberJones, Charlescejones@pitt.edu
Committee MemberShelef, Eitanshelef@pitt.edu0000-0003-0672-5144
Committee MemberThigpen, J. Ryanryan.thigpen@uky.edu0000-0002-3075-5178
Date: 20 January 2021
Date Type: Publication
Defense Date: 20 November 2020
Approval Date: 20 January 2021
Submission Date: 19 November 2020
Access Restriction: 2 year -- Restrict access to University of Pittsburgh for a period of 2 years.
Number of Pages: 382
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences > Geology and Planetary Science
Degree: PhD - Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Type: Doctoral Dissertation
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: thermokinematic modelling landscape modelling thermal modelling Andes fold and thrust belt
Date Deposited: 20 Jan 2021 19:03
Last Modified: 20 Jan 2021 19:03
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/39906

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