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The Contribution of Modifiable and Non-Modifiable Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: A Geospatial Analysis and Literature Review

Maloney, J. Austin (2021) The Contribution of Modifiable and Non-Modifiable Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: A Geospatial Analysis and Literature Review. Master Essay, University of Pittsburgh.

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Abstract

Pancreatic cancer is an important public health issue, due to its silent nature, high mortality rates, and low overall survival rates. Pancreatic cancer is the eleventh most diagnosed cancer in the United States, representing about 3.2% of all new cancer cases in the United States. However, pancreatic cancer is disproportionately deadly, ranking as the fourth most common cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. The risk of developing pancreatic cancer is related to various modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. This review summarizes literature on the associations between the risk of pancreatic cancer and various modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors.
Thirteen articles were retrieved for the evaluation of the effects of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors on the risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Data on smoking, diabetes, and obesity were correlated with age-adjusted pancreatic cancer incidence rates by county for Pennsylvania and by Allegheny County zip code through EDDIE and the Environmental Public Health Track network.
The literature review found that non-modifiable risk factors, such as BRCA mutations, blood type, pancreatitis, and mutations in tumor suppressor and cell proliferation genes to be associated with a higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Modifiable risk factors, such as smoking, alcohol intake, diabetes, and obesity, were also found to be associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer.
Across counties in Pennsylvania, risk factors such as diabetes, obesity, and smoking were shown to have very weak, negative associations with risk of pancreatic cancer age-adjusted incidence rates. However, when examining age-adjusted, 10-year, pancreatic cancer incidence rates by Allegheny County zip codes, modelled rates of obesity and smoking by zip code were shown to have moderate, positive correlations with rates of pancreatic cancer. The correlation between smoking and age-adjusted incidence rates of pancreatic cancer, and obesity and age-adjusted incidence rates of pancreatic cancer within zip codes of Allegheny County was 0.247 and 0.29, respectively. Through a better understanding of risk factors for pancreatic cancer, we can help reduce the risk of negative health outcomes for a disease with a high mortality rate and significant public health significance.


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Details

Item Type: Other Thesis, Dissertation, or Long Paper (Master Essay)
Status: Unpublished
Creators/Authors:
CreatorsEmailPitt UsernameORCID
Maloney, J. Austinjam571@pitt.edujam5710000-0001-9020-9585
ETD Committee:
TitleMemberEmail AddressPitt UsernameORCID
Committee ChairTalbott, Evelyneot1@pitt.edu
Committee MemberBuchanich, Jeaninejeanine@pitt.edu
Committee MemberYuan, Jian-Minyuanj@upmc.edu
Committee MemberSelker, KristinKristin.Selker@AlleghenyCounty.US
Date: 10 February 2021
Date Type: Completion
Submission Date: 4 December 2020
Access Restriction: 2 year -- Restrict access to University of Pittsburgh for a period of 2 years.
Number of Pages: 51
Institution: University of Pittsburgh
Schools and Programs: Graduate School of Public Health > Epidemiology
Degree: MPH - Master of Public Health
Thesis Type: Master Essay
Refereed: Yes
Uncontrolled Keywords: Pancreatic Cancer
Date Deposited: 10 Mar 2021 17:51
Last Modified: 10 Mar 2021 17:51
URI: http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/40001

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